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Introduction Jdf , 

On tbe Sonrces of tbe HiMorr of 8L CUre. . . xi* 

Th« Contemporary Biognphy of tlw Saint. .. xxii 

Date and Authorsfaip xxii 

HSS^ EditioDa, and Tranalationa xl 


Prefatoiy Letter addreased to the Supreme Pontiff 

npon the Irgend of the Holy Virgm Cläre 3 


Of die Birthof St. CUre 6 

Of her Männer of Life in her Patcmal Home 8 

Of the Blesaed Francis'a Acquaintance and Friend- 

ahip with her 10 

How, being tumed from the World by Bleaaed 

Francia. ane paaaed into Religion 13 

How, moleated by her Kinafolk. ahe yct peraevered 

witb Firnineai 16 

Of the Farne of her Virtnes diSused far and widc.. 19 
How the Report ol her Goodneaa ipread evea to 

distant lande 21 

Of her Holy HumUity 23 

Of her Holy and Tme Poverty 25 

Miracle of the Mnltiplication of Bread 28 

Another Miracle of Oil roiraculoutly granted 29 

Of the Mortification of her Flesh 30 

Of her Practice of Holy Prayer 33 

Of the Wondcra wiought through her Prayera, and 

first of the Saraceni being marvelously put to 

flight 36 


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S Contaits 

Another like Mirscie conceminK the Delivennce of 

the City 38 

Of tbc Power of her Pnyers in the CoRvcrsion of 

her own Siater 40 ' 

Another Mincle of the Caating out of Devits 44 

Of her wonderful Devotion toward the Sacraraent 

of the AlUr 46 

Of a truhr wonderful ConsoLition which the Lord 

granted her in her Illneia 47 

Of her mo»t fervent Love of the Crudfied 49 

Of ■ certain Remembrance of the Lord'a Paasion.. 51 
Of divera Mtracles which she worked by the Sign 

and Power of the Cross 53 

Of her daily Inatructian of the Siiters 57 

Of her eager Desire to bear the Word of holy 

Preachins SB 

Of her Ereat Charity toward the Siatera 61 

Of her Infirmitiea and long lUneas 62 

How the Lord Pope Innocent visited, absolved, and 

bleaaed her in her Illnesi 65 

How she replied to her weeping Siater 67 

Of her Last End and of the thiogs that bappened 

and were aeen at that time 6S 

How the Koman Curia with a Crowd of People 

flocked to the Obsequies of the Wifgia 72 


Of the Hiraclea of St Cläre after ahe paaied from 

the World 7J 

Of thoae that were delivered of die Demon 76 

Another Uiracle 7S 

Of a Uan cnred of Frenzy 79 

Of a Peraon who waa cnred of Epilepsy 79 

Of a Blind Uan that received Sight 80 

Of the Reatoration of a Loat Hand 82 

Of the Crooked 83 

Of the Healing of Tumors of the Throat 86 

Of the Canonization of the Holy Virgin Cläre 90 




IntrodactioD 9i 

Tbc Rnlc Mni Life of thc Poer Sisten: 

L Of thc Ewigclical Ruie and of CathoUc 

and Seraphic Obcdicnce 99 

IL Of Sisters aboat to entcr thc Honastery... IM 

III. Of the Divine Office; of Pastint; of Con- 

f ession and Communion 103 

IV. Of the ElecUon of the Abbess; of the Chap- 

ter, and of the Oflicials and the Discreeti. 105 
V. Of Silence and of the Parlor «nd the Grille. lOS 
VI. Of the Seraphic Institution of the Second 
Order and of the Promised Privation of 

Fossessions 110 

VIL Of Work and of Alma 112 

VIII. Of Evangelical Mendicity and of Povertr in 

Particiüor; also of the Sisten wbo are 111. 113 
IX. Of the Penance to be imfiosed on Sitten 
and of the Sieters serving outside the 

Monastery 116 

X. Of the VisiUtion of the Abbesa and of the 
Obcdicnce of the Sisten; also of Vices 

And Virtues 118 

XI. Of the Portress and of the Door; also of 

Entry into the Monastery 120 

XII. Of the Visitor; of the Cbaplain and bis 
Companions, and of the Cardinal Pro- 
tector 122 


Notes 127 

INDEX 157 



iv llluilratiom 

St. Clar« Frontiapiece 

Tibaio d'Auiaü Atti*i, S. Huia <l*ili 

Initial — St. CUrc Page vü 

Ftom ■ minittur* in XIVtb CMturr 
PmcUeu Bnviuy cucaud (or Jumia 
d-E<ir*B(, Queen of Charit« Ib* hir of 

Doorway through which St. Cläre is 
■aid to faave escaped from her 
father's houae bjr night Fadng page xxxix 

ProiB ■ photoinph ipeciaUir tmkta lor 
tliiB ¥oIuni^ 

Interior o{ the Chapel of tbe Porziun- 
cola near Asiiai " " 11 

pTOm a photofTiph hy Atioiri. 

Chapel oE S. Paolo near Baatia " " 11 

Fron ■ photoiiaph taku ipKiallT Idt 
tUi «otua». 

S. Damiano, ahowing window at wliich 
St. Cläre routed tbe Saraccna " ' 35 

Pram a phstociaph bj Lua|hL 

Site of S. Aneelo in Panzo on Monat 

Subasto " " 43 

Tiom ■ photOEnph taktn ipcciallr for 
Ihii Volon*. 

St Clare'a Choir at S. Damiano " " 59 

From ■ phococraph b]r Alinui. 
Within the Cloiater at S. Chiara " " 73 

Pram an unpubliibed phoiofraph. 

St. Clare'a Refectory at S. Damiano.. " " 81 

From a phMOfrapb bjr AUnari. 

Seal of the Monaster? of S. Chiara, 

Astiai, 1255-1899 92 

Bull of GregoTT IX, dated 1228, known 

as tfa« "Privileiiuin PauperUtia'*. . . " " 99 

Fron « pbotoarapb takcn qadallr for 

8t. darc kiaains the Stigmata of St. 
Francis aftcr bis death " " 111 

Fram *B aarlr M9. copy oi tha "L*. 
taada Major" at lt. BoBaTantnra, 

Clues in Choir 123 

i^niKiatnr« In a XtVth oaMorr 




~ IS SAID that devoted women 

have been the complement of 

nt alt the meti wbo have notably 

m affected religton. However 

9 tbis may be. the story of 

9 St. Cläre is linked so veiy 

M dosely with that of St 

^ Francis in populär scmtment 

Imagination that it seems difücult 

link of the one Saint apart from 

other. What is certain is that 

gentle influence of the Assisian 

:ss played no small part in 

oning the life and forwarding 

the work of the Umbrian 

Povereüo. Not only was St. 

Cläre "the chief rival of the Blessed Francis in 

the observance of Gospel Perfection," as an 

early chronicler stylcs her ; ' she was also his 

cbief ally in bringing about that great religious 

movement which told so wonderfully upon the 

Spiritual life of the West and upon the history 

of the thirtccnth Century. No one eise, indeed, 

appears to have caught the spirit of Sl Francis 

so completely as St. Cläre — that exquisite 



viii Saint Cläre 

Franciscati spiiit, as it is calied, which is so 
tender and yet so streng, so human and yet so 
other-worldly — and in that spirit she threw 
around poverty an ineffable charm, such as 
women atone can impart to reUgtous or ctvic 
heroism. After St, Francis was gone, Clarc 
proved herseif the faithfut heiress of his ideals; 
^ '' and when those ideals were in danger,/}f demo- 

I |j ; : Ution, because some oC his disciples would fain 

have tempered their master's teachings by the 
dictates of worldly wisdom, it was she who 
stniggled to uphold them beyond all the rest 
That stniggle lasted more than a quarter of a 
Century: it ended only with her life.* Bat the 
victory lay with Cläre, whose steadfast striving 
t. after an ideal through good report and evil re- 
port, no less than her engaging example of "the 
praying spirit that worked as it prayed," did 
much to guide the women of her day'toward 
higher aims. 

St, Cläre used to call herseif the "Uttle flower 
of St. Francis," • and St Bonaventure teils us 
that she shed around her the fragrance of 
springtide.* Something of that fragrance still 
clings to the story of her life and lends tt a 
• special charm. It is truly one of those tives that 
can teacb perfection without sacrificing poetry. 
And, in so far as it may be allowable to asso- 
ciate the idea of romance with such a subject, 
the friendship of St Francis and St Cläre 
forms one of the most romantic chapters in 



Foraeori \x 

the Lives of the Saints. Por more than one 
reason, then, the story of St. Cläre opens up a 
page of medieval biography füll of import and 
pathetic interest even for those who are not 
especially atudents of the Franciscan Legend. 
This little book does not, of course, pretend 
to be more than a mere footnote on that page. 
It aims at affording EngUsh readen an oppor- 
tunity of going behind the various bter lives 
of St Cläre to the contemporary biography of 
the Saint written down in the f ar-off thirteenth 
Century on the very morrow of her death, and 
wbich is more surely her vera eßigiet than any 
modern work can ever be. This primitive 
biography bas hitherto been inaccessible to 
English-speaking readers in its entirety or as a 
separate wcH'k. A special call seems to exist 
for an English version of it, if only to complete 
the cycle of the early Franciscan Legends in 
the vernacular.* Even for its intrinsic merit 
this work is well worthy of being done into 
English, and the lack of any life of St. Cläre in 
OUT language may tend to invest such a trans- 
lation with an interest it might not otherwise 
possess. Having waited patiently, but vainly, 
for some one better fitted than myself to supply 
this translation, I have finally, with whatever 
^ misgivings as to my ability, essayed the task 

^ myself. The present modest volume is the re- 

I sult. 


l D,g,l,..cbyGOOQiC 


X Saint Cläre 

The Version of Clare's life that ia here pre- 
sented in an English dress is translated 
directly from the Assisi MS. 338. the dtvisions 
into chapters and thetr headings being taken 
from this codex, whtch contains the oldest copy 
of the Latin text of our Life known to scholars. 
This text I have collated wtth other early man- 
uscripts herein mentioned. I bave departed 
from the Assis! text in a few rare instances 
(HÜy, where it did not bring out the meaning 
clearly; in these cases I have followed what 
seemed to be the more apt reading ; but I have 
□ot thought it necessary in a work of this bind 
to note these variants, the more so since they 
are neither numerous nor important. The 
translation of the text has been supplemented 
by such notes as may enable the reader to get 
the utmost out of it. To avoid unnecessaiy in- 
trusion between the author and the reeder, it 
has been thought better to give these notes in 
one place at the end of the volume. The refer- 
ences, however, to the Biblical quotations and 
allusions in whtch our Life, according to the 
thirteenth-century custoiD, abotmds, are given 
in footnotes on the pages where they occur. In 
tranalating these Scriptural passages I have 
adhered to the Douai Version, which more 
dosely represents the Vulgate which Cehmo 
used. It is dear, I think. that such an author 
must needs lose much even in the best trans- 
lation. Only those who have read the original 



ForeiPorJ jä 

Latin know to wbat heights of eloquence and 
beauty his language could attain. Hts curious 
preci&eness, his fondness for antitheses, alliter- 
ation and /enx de moU are a troublesome fea- 
ture of Cclano's style when one comes to 
translate faim. Zndeed, it it at times in^ios- 
sible to put his language into oun, except by a 
Paraphrase. My aim throughout has been to 
give as fatthful a rendering of the Latin at 
may be conststent with good Engltsh. That I 
have fallen short of tbis aim and failed to do 
justice to the original is only too palpable. 
But, at least, I have taken no liberty with 
Celano's text, and I cherish the humble hope 
that this little book, in spite of its short- 
comings, may do something toward making 
English readcrs better acquainted with the 
life of St. Cläre. 

It may be urged that a large part of the 
work which follows has direct refcrence to a 
manner of life very different from that which 
most of US are leading, and that there is mucb 
in it that is inapplicable to us. Be it so. Yet, 
who shall say there is, in the main and deepest 
things, no meaning for a generation like ours 
in the story of St. Cläre? A character at once 
so uplifted and so chastened as hers can never 
lose its charm. And after all these centuries 
the record of such a life, which the style of a 
past age brings out so much better than our 
modern psyclücal methods of analyäs, is able 



zii Saint Cläre 

to attract those who have any sympathy that 
might be called religious for what is good and 
beautiful and true in a way which no raere 
ascetical arguinentation can ever do. 

It happens to be my good fortune to be 
wriring these lines within the garden at S. 
Damiano, amid the self-same scenes on which 
St Clare's eyes so often rested. Fcurtunately, 
the "restoration" fiend has withheld bis sacri- 
legious hand from this, the cradle of her 
Order, and the sweet spirit of the Seraphic 
Mother seems to be still brooding over the 
smal) gray building among the tangled oUve- 
trees, with the pomegranates flowering against 
its walls. What wistfui niemories pervade this 
tranqutl, saint-infected cloisterl It is here 
that St. Cläre learned the counsel o( perfection 
from St. Francis and passed tt on to her 
Spiritual daughters. It was from S. Damiano 
that many of these daughters went bravely 
forth to transplant her life and spirit to the 
distant, leas-favored lands of the north. It 
was at S. Damiano that Francis, during his last. 
Visit to St. Cläre, composed his "Canticle of 
the Sun." It was to this same S. Damiano 
that his lileless body was conveyed, that Saint 
Cläre and her Sisters might Idss the pierced 
hands and feet of him who had formed them 
to the love of Christ Cnicified. It was to S. 
Danüano, also, that Thomas of Celano came, 
after Cläre herseif had gone, to gather ma- 


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FoTeVorJ xiii 

terials for that Life of the Saint which ts here 
transiated into English. 

Let this be the place to express my sincere 
thanks to all those who have helped me in the 
making of this little volume. In particular, I 
am beholden to Professor Leto Alessandri, 
Curator of the Conununal Library at Assist, for 
the facilities he afForded me of Consulting and 
cop3ring the medieval MS. from which the pres- 
cnt translation is made. I owe many thanks 
also to Professor Francesco Pennacchi, of 
Assiü, for courteously placing the proof-sheets 
of his forthcoming Latin edition of this same 
work at my disposal; and to Father Niccold 
CEvanna, of S. Maria degH Angeli, for the 
asEistance renderd me in taking some of the 
photographs here reproduced. For the loan of 
books and MSS. belonging to religious houses 
of the Order, and for other like kindnesses, I am 
indebted to the Abbess of the Poor Cläres at 
Lyons, to Fathcrs Stephen Donovan, Ber- 
nardine Ibald and Livarius Öliger, of the 
Friars Minor, and to Mr. John A. Tennant. 
It gives me great pleasure to record here the 
perfect freedom wJth v/hich I was permitted to 
make use of the Library of the Societä Inter- 
nazionale di Studi Prancescani at Assisi; for 
this favor my wärmest thanks are due to Count 
Piumi Roncalli and the other ofücials of the 

Assht. 30/«lj). 1909. 




THE temper of our time, which is nothing 
if not critical, demands as the creden- 
tials of a translation Ulce the present one some 
such accoiint of the werk done into English as 
may set it in its proper perspective, literary 
and historical. And this demand has to be 
met, even at the riak of bering those to whom 
all details about dates and manuscrtpts and edi- 
tions, and the like, prove cavtare, indeed. Such 
pcrsons are in no wise constrained to pernie 
this Introduction, which is intended for the 
other kind of reader; let therii. rather, pass on 
to the Life of St. Cläre itself wiAiout morc ado. 
Premising this, it is worth our while to note 
that, notwithstanding the widespread interest 
in the early Franciscan movement which has 
been such a marked feature of recent Hterature, 
little. comparativeiy speaking, has been written 
of late years about St. Cläre and the beginnings 
of her Order. The reason of this is not for 
to seek. Easy as it is to grasp the main lines 
of her life-story, a detailed study <^ it is beset 
with no small difficulty. The foremost diffi- 
culty aiises from the dearth of material at the 



InlroJucäon xv 

disposal of atudents. In other words, there are 
very fcw documents extant bearing on the sub- 
ject that can be relied upon. Indeed, it tnay 
be Said that tbe sources of our knowledge as to 
St. Cläre are Bcanty in proportion as they are 
abundant in tbe case of St Francis. Tbis dis- 
crepancy, be it ever so regrettable, ia not alto- 
getber suiprinng. It is not so much that the 
Ufe of St. Cläre was oversbadowed by that of 
St. Francis, as a recent writer has contended,* 
as that it was in a great measure a hidden one. 
There is no good reason to belteve that sbe 
ever oncc stepped beyond the threshold of S. 
Damiano from the time of her instalment 
there in or about 1212 up to her death some 
forty-one years afterward.' With St. Francis 
it was far otherwise. He livcd almost con- 
tinually, so to say, in the public eye, closely 
followed in all bis joumeyings by observant 
chroniclers. It is not, therefore, to be won- 
dered at if contemporary writcrs have left us 
such a complete record of tbe doings and say- 
ings of the Povettllo. and such a meager ac- 
count of St. Cläre. So far as concems out- 
ward events there was probably little to relate 
in her regard. 

On the other band, it is well known that 
not all the early documents relating to the 
history of St. Cläre have come down to us. 
For exzmple, only a fragmcnt of the rule of 
Ufe v/hich St, Francis gave to Cläre at the be- 



xi'i Saint Cläre 

ginning of her religious life is known to exist, 
and o£ the "many writings" which the 
Seraphic Father addressed to his spiritual 
daughters,' not more than a few Itnes have sur- 
vived.* The Cantides he composed for the 
Sisters of St. Cläre and the last blessmg he 
sent them in writing '° and other manuscripts 
of equal importance for the life of St Cläre 
have likewise perished, or at least dis- 

But how, it may be asked, did the Poor 
Cläres ever suffer documents such as these to 
pass out of their hands? This question calls 
for a brief digression. It ts a matter of his- 
tory that the Chapter General of the Friars 
Minor, assembled at Paris in 1266, ordered 
that the "Ancient Legend" " should no longer 
be read and should to the utmost of the power 
of all the Friars be destroyed." There has 
becn some difFerence of opinion as to the pre- 
cise aim of this Ordination.'* There can, un- 
fortunately, be no doubt as to its effect^ it 
resulted in a desperate war being waged upon 
all the early Franciscan documents, especially 
those which were known to relate to St. 
Frands's will as to the observance of Poverty. 

It was, doubtiess, about this time that 
Brotber Leo, as we leam from Ubertino 
da Casale, confided his famous nbtti and 
ceJaU for safe keeping to the care of 
the nuns in the Monastery' of S. Chiara 



Inlroduclion xvii 

at Assist, in order to save them to pos- 
teiity.'* Ubertino teils us, however, that 
"to hU great grief" these manuscripts of Leo 
had been "partly scattered" and "perhaps lost, 
at least many of them." '* And this fact seems 
to fumish a valuable clue to the disappearance 
of sotne, at least, of the Cläres' documents, 
also. Por, relating ai these documents did in 
part to the questton of Poverty, tbey would 
have been no less exposed dian Leo's scripta 
to the attempts of the abettors of laxity. 
Apart from this consideration, if we take into 
- account the vicissitudes through which the 
Monastery of S. Chiara st AEdsi — not to 
mention other less fortunate foundations — has 
passed dunng the six and a half cemurics of 
its existence, the wonder is, rather, that the 
nuns there have succeeded in saving any of 
their early documents at all, Only those who 
have been privileged to read a touching MS. 
chronicle of Memorie preserved in the archive 
and written at different periods by reltgious 
who had witnessed what they record, can form 
any idea of what the Community at S. Chiara 
had to suffer in consequence of oft-reciirring 
wars and revolutions. More than once within 
the last hundred years the religious have 
been suddenly expelied without being allowed 
to take anything with them, whilst their monas- 
tery was pillaged and turned over to the sol- 
diers as a barracks, or the cells wcre let out as 



xviii Saint Cläre 

lodgings. Who can teil how many a precious 
voIume and manuscript may have perished in 
this way ? In any evcnt it seems saf e to aay that 
the Cläres at Assist are in nowise accountable 
for the loss o£ their early documents bearing 
on the life of St Cläre and the history of their 
Order. Throughout the history of the Mon- 
astery of S. Chiara its archive has been 
guarded with jealous care,'' and when no other 
means of saving these treasures remained, the 
nuns hid them not less wisely than well. Wit- 
ness the pious ruse by which the original Bull 
of Innocent IV confirming the Ruie of St. 
Cläre was preserved. This precious docu- 
ment, which for centuries was thought to have . 
been lost, was found by the Abbess in the 
spring of 1893 at the Monastery .of S. Chiara 
wrapped inside an old habit of the Saint I 

The belated recovery of this important BuU 
awakened considerable interest not only for 
its own sake, but also because it led to the 
hope that some other missing doctiments of the 
early times might also be hidden at S. Chiara, 
awaiting, as it were, to be discovered. That 
such is not the case may now be positively , 
affimied. In January of 1908 the present writer, 
«i 1 ! ' having obtained the necessary leave to enter 

within the claiaura at S. Chiara, made a minute 
and protracted examination of the archive 
there and of every other nook and crevice on 
the premises likely to conceal aught of interest, 



Iniroduction zix 

sounding the very walls, lest perchance — as 
not infrequently happens in old monasteries — 
soroe hidden treasure might be secreted behind 
them." The Breviaiy of St. Francis, which 
his companions Leo and Angelo coniniitted to 
the nuns at S. Chiara f or saie keeping, besides 
many other tnteresting relics of the two 
Saintc." is stiU there," but in vain I looked 
for any trace ot Üie HSS. wbich Leo confided 
to their care or of any of the other much- 
desired early documents bearing upon the bis- 
tory of St, Cläre. Of a tnith, I was hardly so 
sanguine as to ex[>ect to find them. Indeed, 
it was not so much by the hope of finding the 
documents in question that I was led to make 
the search at S. Chiara as by the desire of set- 
ting at rest once for all the mooted question as 
to the probability of some, at least, of the miss- 
ing documents being hidden tn that monastery. 
So far as concerns S. Chiara, it boots not to 
look further. My quest of documents there 
also served to disclose the existence of many 
interesting early Bulis and other "pergamene," 
some of them yet unpubüshed,*' It may be 
added that, . thanks to the courtesy of Mgr, 
Tini, Vicar General of Assisi, I was able to 
make sure that no early MSS. regarding 
St. Cläre lie lurking in any cobwebbed cor- 
ner of the archive of S. Rufino, either. The 
Chief object of my sesrch at the latter place 
was an instrument, executed on 8 June, 1238, 



XX Saint Cläre 

by St. Cläre and the fifty Sisters who were 
then with her at S. Damiano, by which they 
appointed a procurator to make over a piece of 
land near Bastia to the Chapter of S. Rufin o. 
When Wadding wrote,'* the original docu- 
ment was in the possession of the Dean of the 
Cathedral of S. Rufino at Assisi, D. Cillenio 
Benignotoli, but tfae waters of Lethe had ap- 
parently closed over this precious parchment 
before 1795. At least there is no mention of 
it in the very complete Inventory of the 
archive of S. Rufino (963-1646), made in that 
year by Frondini. This Inventory,** which is 
still in MS., was kindly placed at my disposal 
by Mgr. Tini. Nor is tbere any trace at S. 
Damiano of the early copy which Wadding 
saw there. 

In the hope that some clue to the documents 
collected by the Bishop of Spoleto with a view 
to Clare's canonization tnight, perfaaps, be 
found in the episcopal archlves there, I visited 
that ancient city in January of 1908, but on 
being informed by the Vicar General, Mgr. 
Paloci-Pulignani — who is also Editor of the 
Mhcellanea Francescana — that there were no 
documents there of any kind carlier than the 
^Council of Trent (1546), I reluctantly abän- 
doned the search. 

Although the ceaseless search for Franciscan 
documents which has been pursued so eagerly 
for several years past has not as yet tended to 



InlToäaclion xxi 

throw any new light upon the Hfe of St. Cläre, 
it is still quite possible that it may lead to the 
re-discovery of some fresh material bearing 
on the subject. In the meantime the extant 
documents from which our knowledge of St. 
Cläre ts chiefly derived are few and easüy 
dassilied. They comprise (1) some fragments 
of the Saint's correspondence ; ** (2) & Testa- 
ment attributed to her; ** (3) some early BuUs 
bearing on her life,'* and (4) a contemporaiy 
biography.*^ If we except such occasional 
references to St. Cläre as occur in the early 
lives of St. Francis, these are the only sources, 
properly so calied, of her history that have 
escaped the ravages of time. This is no place 
in which to discuss the critical questions con- 
nected viixh these sources.'* Succinctly stated, 
one finds nothing or next to nothing in St. 
Clare's letters to the princess Agnes which 
throws any light upon her life, On the other 
band, allusions to her vocation and the begin- 
nings of her Order are not wanting in the Tes- 
tament which has come down to us under her 
name. It is only fair to add that the authentic- 
ity of this document has been callcd into ques- - 
tion. All that can be said on the subject is that 
it may well be the handiwork of the Saint. It is 
no easy task to thread onc's way through the 
early Bulls touching the life of St. Cläre that 
are scattered through the first two tomes of the 
Pranciscan Bullary, and it requires a patient 



xxii Saint Cläre 

spirit of research into dry detaila to disentangle 
the complicated early history of her Rule which 
these documents unfotd. The groundwork of 
our knowledge of St. Cläre is derived from her 
contemporary btography, which remains the 
Chief source of her history. This ts the work 
of which a translation is here presented to 
English readers, and of which it now becmnes 
necessary to treat more at lar^e. 

First, of all, then, as to its date. It is evi- 
dent from the Introductory Letter prefaced to 
i^ that this Life was wrltten during the lifetime 
(d the Pope who canonized St Cläre. Now, 
St. Cläre was inscribed in the calendar of 
Saints by Alexander IV on 11 August, 1255; " 
and this Ponti£f died on 25 May, 1261. We 
may, therefore, conclude that our Life was 
composed between these two dates, or within 
eigbt years at most, after the death of the 
Saint. St. Cläre was fortunate, at least, in 
Unding a contemporary biographer. But 
wbo was this biographer? To this question 
a direct answer can bardly be given. Lei us 
see why. 

With a modesty becoming a foUower of St. 
Francis, this writer elected to withhold bis 
name. At an early stage of its history bis 
biography passed into what has been calied the 
irrare magnum of Franciscan anonymity, and 



IntroJactIon uciii 

lost its identity. By and by S. Bonaventure 
came to be accredited with its patemtty. It 
is not hard to see how this came to pass. Our 
Life appeared anonymously at a time when the 
Seraphic Doctor was one of the most populär 
and widely known writers in the Order; and 
in tone of thought it strongly resembled some 
of his own works. Moreover, aome early 
manuscripts and even editions of this Life of 
St. Cläre actually appeared under his name. 
Por all that, the Bollandists discredited the 
ascription of our Life to St. Bonaventure."' 
They were right. It certainly never emanated 
from his gifted and proliBc pen. Pollowing 
the ancient manuscript tradition of the Order, ^ 
the Bollandists regarded cur Life as the work 
of an unknown author. The Pabet Editora 
of Quaracchi advanced a step further. In ex- 
cluding the Claims of St. Bonaventure they 
fixed upon Thomas of Celano as the anony- 
mous author,*' and most scholars have since 
come to the same conclusion.*' It is none the 
less true, as Goetz reminds us," that this con- 
temporary btography of St. Cläre may not be 
ascribed to Thomas of Celano with absolute 
certainty. So true is this that one Single, 
nndoubted early authority attributing it to 
some one eise might sufHce to put the Celanese 
lüstorian's Claims out of court But no such 
evidence appears to be forthcomtng. Mean- 
while, unlesB all the seasoned scholars in ^I^^qqIc 

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xxiv Saint Cläre 

domain have conspired together to be wrong, 
there is much grcater reason for assigning our 
Life to Thomas of Celano than to anybody eise. 
It seems desirable, therefore, to say a word as 
to the Personality of this writer. 

Thomas was a native of Celano in the 
Abruzzi, and probably entered the Order 
about 1215. We leam from Jordan's Chron- 
icle ** that in 1221 he accompanied Caesar of 
Speyer to Germany. The following year he 
bccame Gustos of Mayence, Worms, Speyer 
and Cologne. When Thomas tumed to Italy 
is uncertain, but he was at Asstsi (or the 
canonization of St. Francis (16 July, 1228), 
and soon afterward (before February, 1229) 
he wrote his Vita Prima, or "First Life" of St. 
Francis, by order of Gregory XX. Between 
1244 and 1247 he compiled bis Vita Secunda 
or "Second Life" of St. Francis, which is in 
the nature of a Supplement to the first 
one, by commission of Crescentius of Jesi, then 
Minister General of the Order. About 
ten years' läter he composed a Traclalia 
or ttreatise on the miracles of St. Francis 
at the bidding of the Blessed John of 
Parma, the successor of Crescentius as Min- 
ister General.*' In addition tä these works, 
around n^ch a large controv6rsial literature 
bas grown up in recent years,** Thomas of 
Celano wrote two beautifui sequences on St 
Francis,*' and he is also the reputed autbor 


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Introiuclion xxv 

of the Dl'« hae.** He had come. tiierefore, to 
be regarded in some sense as the oEßcial biog- 
rapher of St. Francis, and in the natural order 
of things would most probably have been the 
person chosen to write the authoritative life 
of St. Cläre. 

That Thomas of Celano was selected for 
this task we learn from an amplified Italian 
Version of the present Life wbich exiats in 
manuscript in the National Library in Flor- 
ence.** This Magliabecbian codex, as it is 
called, possesses a special interest as contain- 
ing the most definite indication yet known as 
to the authorship of cur Life of St. Cläre. In 
a prologue, which is found only in this Italian 
Version and which was edited in 1855 by Dem 
Cozza-Luzzi,**' Thomas of Celano is said to 
have been commissioned by Alexander IV to 
write it, and this attribution is confirmed in 
a prefatory letter accompanying this Italian 
translation. Long before Cozza-Luzzi gave it 
to the World, the great Conventual critic 
Papini called attention to this Magttabechian 
codex,*' and he was inclined on the strength 
of it to ascribe our Hfe to Thomas of Celano, 
but he afterwards changed his mind on this 
point,*' although he does not say why. 

The fact that Dom Cozza-Luzzi passed over 
in silence the date of the codex in question 
led me to cxamine it carefully during a visit 
to Florence in August, 1909. It 

nsit I 


xxvi Saint Cläre 

parchment voIume in quarto, without any date ; 
the name of the scribe is not indicated; but 
the writing is undoubtedly by a seventeenth 
Century band ; " and it is under that Century 
that the Magliabechian MS. is entered in the 
catalogue. And what is the consequence? 
This. Unless the codex be a copy of a much 
older one, its ascription of our Life to Thomas 
of Celano will not bear all the weight some 
writers would fain put upon it. It may well 
be that it is a transcript of an earlier MS. — 
and the details it fumishes as to the prellm- ^ 
inary Steps taken by "Messer" Bartholomew, 
Bishop of Spoleto, with a view to St Clare's 
canonization lend strength to this supposition 
— but the fact that this Italian version of our 
Life embodies "other notable things," as the 
translator calls them,** "taken &om the chron- 
icles of the Order," including (pp. 113a, 119b) 
the Testament and (pp. 120a, 121a) the Bless- 
ing attributed to St. Cläre — which are not 
found in any of the early MSS., and the 
authentictty of which has been calied into 
question on other grounds, also — indines me 
to believe that such is not the case. To be 
sure, I speak as one less wise and with all due 
respect to those students of Pranciscan sources 
who do not hesitate to see in this MS. one 
of the most interesting documents for the 
critical reconstniction of the history of St. 
Cläre." " 



IntroJuction xxvü 

Happily, however, the questioti of the 
authorship of our present Life of St. Clare^ 
does not depend upon the Magliabecchian 
codex. Other adequate arguments are not 
wanting to support Celano'« daims. Indeed, if 
we examine the Life itself, we shall find manjr 
internal proofs in favor of the Celanese bi<^- 
rapher. The Prok^^ue, in particular, reveals 
the method and s^le of Thomas of Celano. 
It sets forth the author's motives for writing, 
the sources of his infonnation, and his mis- 
givings as to his abiüty to perform the task 
imposed upon him, in a manner which bears 
a streng family likeness to the prologue of 
Thomas of Celano's "First Life" of St. Fran< 
eis — as a comparison of the two works suEEices 
to show. Again, if we place these two lives 
side by side, we shall find a number of inter- 
esting parallels, containing not only the same 
similarity of thought, but also the same pecu- 
lianties of diction — that fondness for epigram 
and alliteration and that tendency to play upon 
words which surely spell the name of Thomas 
of Celano. It would not be difficult to select 
illustrations, but they would be out of place 
in a translation. These whom the question 
interests are referred to the list given by 
P. Edouard d*Alen;on.** And what is perhaps 
more striking still, our author here employs 
the same sevenfold division of the subjcct- 
matter as that outlined by Thomas of Celano 



xxviii Saint Cläre 

in Chapter VIII in hia "First Life" of St. 
Francis. In that chapter, aftcr treating brieily 
of the Poor Cläres at S. Damiano, Celano de- 
clares that their "wondrous life and glorious 
Institution demands a work to itself and 
leisure to write iL"*^ 

Thomas found that leisure toward the end 
of his life, when he was spiritual director of 
the Poor Clares in the Monastery of S. Gio- 
vanni de Varro, near Tagliacozzo, some six- 
teen miles from his birthplace. It was then 
that he composed the "work in itseir' on St. 
Cläre which is here translated and which is 
believed to have been his last work." Well- 
nigh three decades had elapsed since Thomas 
wrote his "First Life" of St. Francis, and thia 
circumstance goes far to account for certain 
alleged inconsistencies betwcen that Life and 
this one," as well as to explain why it is that . 
the present Life, though it resembles Thomas's 
earlier works so closely in other respects, yet 
lacks something of their spirited style. 

Seeing that our author can hardly, in any 
case, have been an eyewitness of the facts be 
records,*' it becomes important for us to in- 
quire, next, whether or not he had adequate 
opportunities of arriving at the truth. What, 
in other words, were the sources of his Infor- 
mation as to St. Cläre? The author himself 
is at pains to enlighten us. No one, he de- 
clares in his Prologue,*' is competent to writs 


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IntToduction xxix 

about facts he has not ivitnesBcd himself, or 
about which he bas not learned from eyewit- 
nesses. With thts proviso, he goes on to relate 
that, having exammed the acta of St. Cläre, he 
proceedcd to write her Legend; but that, not 
being satisfied with the defective accounts he 
read, he had recoune to the surviving com- 
panions of St Francis and of St. Cläre to 
ascertain the facts. Here we may note the 
temper of the true chronicler, whose chief 
concem is to ncorä things as they really were, 
It follows, theo, that the official acta of St. 
Clare's life and nüracles formed the primary 
source of Celano's information. These same 
acta had formed the basis of the Bull of Clare's 
canonization °* — a fact which may serve to ex- 
plain the marked resemblancc between the 
Bull and our Life, which the observant rcader 
of both documents can scarcely fail to notice, 
for neither one of these documents can very 
well have bcen derived from the other. Be- 
sides these acta, Thomas of Celano had access 
to other early documents, which have since 
disappeared, and among them, if we may be- 
lieve the writer of the Magliabecchian MS. 
already mentioned, were a primitive legend of 
St, Cläre and some notes on her life by ccrtain 
Friars." Not only, therefore. had Celano every 
opportunity for arriving at an accurate knowl- 
edge as to her life, but he appears to have 
üsed this opportunity to the füll, Not being 



XXX Saint Cläre 

satisfied with the documents at his disposal, 
he betook himself to Assisi and laid under con- 
tribution those who had known St. Cläre, then 
only laid to rest a few years before.'* That 
our author was not himself an eyewitness of 
the things he relates detracts nothing, there- 
fore, £roin the value of his nairative. 

Such, then, were the sources of Celano'i 
kttowledge as to St. Cläre. The material col- 
lected from these sources he cast into a literary 
form and added a preface of his own. The 
present Life is somcthing more, however, than 
a mere compUation. In worldng over the 
material at his disposal, Thomas of Celano 
conferred on it in some measure the stamp of 
his Personality, and this no less in the selection 
and arrangement of this material than in the 
shape he gave it. On the whole, his relatim 
to our present Life of St. Cläre and to the 
"Second Life" of St. Francis, which bears bis 
name, seems to be somcwhat analogous in so 
far as Thomas of Celano, in writing his Life 
of St. Cläre, was mainly dependent for his 
facts upon the Information supplied by others. 
In default, however, of the original sources 
to which be had access in its composition, 
Celano's Life of St Cläre remains the earliest 
attempt to give a presentment of St. Cläre in' 
writing. •' , 

Thomas of Celano's qualifications to be the 
ürst btographer of St. Cläre can hardly be 



IntroJttction xxxi 

gainsaid. Apart from the fact that he had 
come, as we have seen, to be regarded in sotne 
sort as the official biographer of the Order, he 
had the gilt of writing in no ordinary degree. 
A born man of letters and the master of an 
elegant and eloquent Latin style, he was some- 
thing more than a conventional medieval 
hagiologist. But be was influenced by the 
ideas current in the day in which bis life was 
set, and, this being so, allowance must be 
made for rhetorical flights such as modern 
ears are little accustomed to. Thus, he begins 
his Life with a picture of the State of society 
at the close of the twelfth Century, from which 
one might conclude that the grossest darkness 
then brooded over the face of Europe. That 
there was much moral darkness in this period 
no Student of history will deny; but that dark- 
ness was its Chief, if not only, characteristic, 
no Student of history may asscrt. To be sure, 
most modern scholars have abandoned belief 
in the general darkness of the Middle Ages, 
but not all know how to discount the exagger- 
ations of medieval chroniclers. It may not be 
amiss, therefore, to note by the way that, as a 
rule, the more pious a chronicler is, the blacker 
are the colors he uses. Aside from this con- 
sidcration, Celano had a special motive for 
drawing his shadows so darkly. He wished to 
make St. Cläre shine bright against the sombcr 
background of the times, and the significance 



Xlcdi Saint Cläre 

of her name, Clara, or clear, lent additional 
color to his picture. He cannot resist the 
temptation to ring the changes upon her 
clarity, her clarisonance and her darification, 
and to indulge in forced antithesis in order 
to bring its lightsomeness into füll relief. It 
would bc unfair, however, to make a scapegoat 
of Celano in consequence of these excesses, for 
it must be remembered that such litcrary vices 
—as we would now call them — were accounted 
good style at the time he wrote. For the rest, 
it would be very short-sighted, to say the least, 
to quarrel with our author if we do not find in 
his Life of 5t. Cläre what one would look for 
in a modern biography. As regards its literary 
stnicture, he used the tradltional forms and 
concepts. Indeed, it affords in thts respect an 
almost typical example of the medieval 
method. Our Life divides itself into two parts. 
The first of these (pp. 3-74) extends from the 
period immediately preceding Clare's btrth up 
to her death, and in so far as it deals with her 
conversion, life and miracles may be regarded 
in some measure as the collected imprcssions 
of Clare's companions and acquaintances, 
edited by Celano. The second part (pp. 75- 
91), which treats of the miracles worked 
through Clare's intercession after her death, is 
obviously little more than an abridgement 
of the wonders recorded in the offictal acta 
of her canonization. Althougfa the facti nar- 


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InlroJuction xxxiii 

rated ränge over the whole life of St. Cläre 
from her birth to her death. they do not, as a 
rule, (oUow the chronological order of events. 
but have been grouped under various bead- 
ingB «ccording as they seem to fit in together 
and tend to illustrate different aspects of the 
Saint's life <»- character. Again, no attempt is 
inade to detennine the interral between the 
events recorded. Thus, tbe death of St 
Agnes is stated to have taken place 
"a few days" after that of her sister, St. 
Cläre. In point of fact, more than three 
months elapsed between the two events.'* 
So, too, after relating the repulsion of Aversa, 
which is usuaUy referred to the year 1234, 
Clare's biographer proceeds to record the 
rescue of St. Agnes from their enraged rela- 
tives, an inddent which clearly took place in 
1212. If the earlier event is here put later, it 
is because the context leads up to it, not in 
Order to fix its date. So far as dates go, only 
one — the year of Clare's canonization (p. 91), 
is given throughout the earlier work. No men- 
tion is made of the year of her birth, conver- 
sion or death. We must remember, in extenu- 
ation of this seenüngly lamentable negligence, 
that medieval hagiographers did not care if the 
exact dates in a Saint's life were not under 
the eyes of their readers, providcd its vivifying 
influence entered their souls. In other words, 
their primary aim was practical, rather than 



nxiv Saint Cläre 

scientiBc. The present biography was writtcn 
for the grcater glory of St Cläre and for the 
edification of her spiritual daughters and of 
the World at large. It seeks to portray St. 
Cläre as a chosen servant of God, raised up to 
be the co-foundress of a great religious Order, 
and to hold her up as a model for imitation. 
Such was our author's aim, and as the purely 
historical features of the Saint's life were not 
considered essenttal to it, he, in great measure, 
disregarded them. 

On the other hand, whatever might tend to 
establish and exalt the sanctity of Cläre — her 
watchings and fastings, her spirit of prayer 
and gift of tears, her ecstasies and mirades — 
is set forth at length. And it may be well to 
recall that Celano wrote at a time when the 
tendency to believe that God continually inter- 
fered with the course of nature mied every- 
whcre.** Our author realizes the need of 
reckoning with this tendency, but he is at 
pains to remind bis readers that "true sanc- 
tity lies not so much in working mirades 
as in holtness and fullness of good works" *' — 
a reminder that is somewhat unusual in an age 
that produced the Legmda Aarea of Voragin« 
and the Dtalogas Miracalonim of Caesar of 
Heisterbach. To modern readers some of the 
mirades recorded by our author may seem 
to be trivial, puerile, even grotesque. Never 
mind. They were certainly set down in all' 



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InlroJuction xxxv 

sincerity, and their perusal has fostered the 
fervor of tbose for whom they were chiefly 
intended. Considered in themselves, these 
narrstives are not without interest, as illus- 
trating tbe populär religious point of view of 
thc Middlc Ages. Take, for example, the 
tale of the Uttlc maid of Cannara who was res- 
cued from the wolf,** which is candid as a 
child's Story and as touching in its extreme 
luivele. Who can read this simple tale with- 
out being impressed by the ncamess to the 
World of spirit in which Clare's contemporaries 
lived, and without being reminded that the 
devotional attitude of mind which character- 
ized our torefathers is far enougb from us, and 
nothing better, perhaps, come in its stead. 
This by the way. 

Like all the early Franciscan legends, the 
present Life of St. Cläre is more or less frag- 
mentary. The author himself teils us " that 
he is f <u' from having told all. Taken as a 
whole, he may be satd to fumish the materials 
for a picture of the Saint rather than the pic- 
ture itself. These materials are still suf- 
ficient to enable us to form a clear outline of 
St Clare's life and character, She was nur- 
tured in an atmosphere of religion, and her 
childhood was one of precocious yet engaging 
piety. The ßrst event of public intercst in the 
life of Cläre took place in the Lent of 1212. 
St. Francis was then preaching at S. Giorgio 



ixxvi Saint Cläre 

in Assisi. Deeply moved by hts words of 
"spirit and life," Cläre feit that "the Master 
had come and was calling her." She gave her 
heart to PVancis, and he, in tum, consecrated 
it to Cod. There are few more dramatic pages 
in any biography than that which descrtbes 
the Saint's midnight flight from her father's 
house to an unknown future — how, having 
forced her way through a walled-up door, she 
hurried out of the slumbering town and across 
the intervening fields, even down to the tiny 
chapel of the Porziuncola in the piain below ; 
how as she drew near to it the Paverello and bis 
- companions advanced to meet her, bearing 

flickering torches, and how Francis, having cut 
off her hair, clothed her with the coarse, beast- 
colored habit and knotted cord then wom by 
his Friars. Then and there the grand old 
Order of the Poor Cläres, in whose bosom 
there now repose so many generations of 
Saints, was founded, however unconsctously, 
through this brave, venturesome, even reck- 
less, act of one fratl young girl. Cläre was not 
yet eighteen when she underwent this great 
Spiritual crisis known as her "conversion." 

The first of the "weaker sex" — I am using 
Celano's words — to embrace the new mode of 
life marked out by the Poverello, Cläre was 
destined to becmne the "valiant woman" of 
the early Pranciscan movement. In some re- 
spects, perhaps, she was even more virile than 



InlroJuction xxxvii 

Francis himself. Witness, for example, her 
memorab]« interview with Gregory IX at S. 
Damiano. The venerable Pontiff, who re- 
garded absolute povertjr as impossible for 
doistered women, vinted Cläre and urged her 
to accept some possessions for her Community. 
"If it be thy vow that hindereth thce from 
doing so," he added, "we absolve thee from it." 
"Holy Father," replied the gentle Abbess, 
"absolve me from my sins, if thou wilt, bat I 
desire not to be absolved from following Jesus 
Christ." *" Clare's conduct on that occasion 
was hardly less heroic than when, single- 
handed, she routed the band of Saracen mer- 
cenaries who had scaled the walls of S. Dami- 
ano.** Nor was that the first time she had 
faced armed men without flinching and van- 
quished tbem.** 

But with all her strength of will Cläre had 
a woman's tendemess and she showed it in a 
woman's way." Thus, we read that when the 
nights were cold she was wont to go through 
the dormitory at S. Damiano and to put 
warmer covering ovcr such Sisters as seemed 
to be ill-protected against the rigors of winter. 
This tendcrer side of the Saint's character is 
no less charmingly portrayed by her contem- 
porary biographer than the empire she exer- 
cised over the hearts of her spiritual children. 
Brave and cheerful to the last, Cläre, in spite 
of her protracted and painful infirmiües. 



xxxvüi Saint Ctart 

caused herseif to be propped up in bed so that 
she might continue to spin altar-linen for the 
poor churches among the Umbrian hüls. And 
wben, durin g an access of suifertng, Cardinal 
Rainaldo exhorted her to patience, she replied, 
"Believe me, dearest brother, that ever since 
the day I received the grace of vocation from 
our Lord through His servant Francis, no suf- 
fering hath ever troubied me, no penance been 
too hard, no infirmity too great." Nothing, 
truly, is more touching in the Saint's later Ufe 
than her unfaltcring loyalty to the memory of 
Francis. On her deathbed as in the heyday 
of her girlish enthusiasm, Francis was, after 
God, the master light of all her seeing.** And 
surely it was befitting that the early com- 
panions of Francis were present when Cläre 
lay dying, to read aloud for her the Fassion 
of our Lord according to St. John, m commat- 
iaüonem animae, even as they bad done twenty-. 
seven years before at the Porziuncola when 
Francis was led away from earth by "Stster 
Death." Celano's account of Clare's death is 
moving in tta simple directness, and is evi- 
dently based on the narrative of an eyewitness. 
It may well be that we owe it to Leo, who was 
a life-long friend of Cläre, and who is said to 
have coUaborated to some eztent in writing 
her Ufe. Only one who was present could 
have fumished the intimste details recorded. 
Such, in brief, are some of the leading traits 





InltoiolXian xU 

but a miscellaneous collection of MSS. of dif- 
ferent periods; and this view is confirmed by 
an examination of the text. There is good 
reason to beUeve that, as b whole. it is of the 
end of the tbirteenth centuiy. Such is the 
opinion of Professor Leto Alessandri, Libra- 
riaa of the Commune." The portion of the 
MS. with which we are chiefly concemed here 
extends over ten folios (74-84), and com- 
prises onr Vita S. Ctarm in thirty cbapters, 
with an appendix of mirades. This is the 
earliest copy known to exist of the work here 
translated and practically represents the con- 
temporary biography of St. Cläre as it left 
the hands of the author. I have, therefore, 
taken this text as the basis of the present 

Soon after it appeared, our Life was put into 
hexameter verse by a poct whose identity re- 
mains unknown." It was abridged by Vora- 
gine about 1275 in his Golden Legend,^' as 
well as by various early chroniders of the 
Order, part of it being found in Bartholomew 
of Pisa's well-known Book of Conformities.^* 

The first edition of the Latin text of 
Celano*« Life was published at Cologne in 
1573, in connexion with Surius's Lives of the 
Saints.** A second Latin edition appeared at 
Antwerp in 1613. It foimed part of the 
Hutana SaapUca of Sedulius,^* who foUowed 
the text of Surius and divided the Life, as 




Saint Cläre 

Surius had done, into thirty chaptere. A third 
Latin edition was issucd in 1761 under the 
auspices of the Bollandists.'* This edition was 
based on a MS. of their own, which they col- 
lated with two others,^^ and with the edition 
of Surius, the variants being carefuUy noted 
and a scholarly "Commentarius Praevius," 
contributed by Cuypers. The text of this 
edition, which ig divided into seven chapters 
containing seventy-one paragraphs, does not 
differ substantially from that of Surius and 
Sedulius, save only that it contains two addt- 
tional chapters not found in the earlier e<fi- 
tions.'* A fourth and much needed critical 
edition of the Latin text prepared by Professor 
Francesco Pennacchi, of Assisi, is on the point 
of publicatioQ as I write these lines. This new 
edition is based on the text of the Assisi MS. 
338, already mentioned. 

Another witness to the popularity of 
Celano*! Life of St. Cläre is the fact that it 
had been done into the vulgär tongue of sev- 
eral European nations long before the Latin 
text was put into type. In 1491, wbile the 
art of printittg was as yet in its infancy, a 
Flemish translation was printed at Antwerp, 
the text of which has recently been re-edited.** 
I have not been able to leam of any early 
EngUsh verston of our Life, unless Cax- 
toa's deligbtful compendium of it in the 
Colien Lebend (c. 1483),"* may deserve that 


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IntroJuction xlin 

name. Indeed, the only known English Ver- 
sion of Celano is one which appeared some 
years ago under the auspiceB of the Poor 
Cläres, m a volume of miscellaneous matter 
bearing on the life of St. Cläre, and which 
Eppears to be now out of print»' The trana- 
lation of our Life which that volume contaiiu 
is based on the text of the BoUandista, and, w 
far as it goe^ it is a good one; but it i* quite 
overshadowed bjr a mass of other documentt 
of much less value and interest and its ezist- 
ence appears to be wholly unknown to EngUsh 
students of the Franciscan Legend. In anf 
case, plenty of room retnains for a new trans- 
lation which seeks to fumish a complete and 
correct version of the original work. 



The Life of St. Cläre 






AS THOUGH old age were overtaking the 
enfeebled world with rapid stridea, the 
eyes of its faith were growing dim, its moral 
galt was faltering, it« strength to do nuuily 
deeds was failing; yea, more, depravity kept 
pace with this decrepitude. Then it was that 
God, the lover of meti, from the depths of His 
compassion, raised up reUgtous Orders of a 
new sort, thus providing a support for faith 
and a Standard for conduct. The modern 
fathers, with the men wbo follow them,*' I 
should certainly style the lights of the world, 
the leaders of the march, the masters of life 
through whoio the splendor of noonday has 
arisen on the earth at evening, that they that 
walked in darkness might see the light* Nor 
was it fitting that a -helper should be wanting 
to the weaker sex, wbich, caught up in the 

•See Isa. 9:2, 


■ j D,g,l,..cbyGOOglC 



4 The Life of 

Whirlpool of passion, was drawn to sin by a 
not leas strong inclination and tmpelled toward 
it by a much greater frailty. Wherefore, the 
good God set up the venerable virgin Cläre 
and in her enkindled a most brilliant light for 
womanktnd, Di^om thou, most blessed Father,** 
moved by the greatness of her miracles, plac- 
ing upon a candlestick that she may shine to 
«11 that are in the house,* hast enroUed in the 
catalogue of Saints. Thee we honor as the 
father of these Orders; thee we recognize as 
their guardtan; thee we embrace as their pro- 
tector ; thee we reverence as their Lord, whom 
the general guidance of the greatest bark of 
all preoccupies in such a way as not to exclude 
a Singular and anxious care for smaller craft 
also. It has pleased Your Holiness-to enjoin 
upon my littleness that, having exanüned the 
acta of St. Cläre," I should compose her Le- 
gend,** a task which my want o( skill in letters 
would surely make me shrink from, were it 
not for the repcated expression of Pontifical 
authority. Girding myself, therefore, to the 
hebest, bat fearing to rely upon the defective 
accounts I have read, I had recourse to the 
companions of the Blessed Francis" and to 
the Community of the virgina of Christ,'* often 
considering in my mind that of old none were 
allowed to write history save those vrho 

•See Matt 5:15. 



Saint Ctare 5 

had Seen for themselves or who had received 
their knowledge from eycwitnesses. When 
these, I say, under the guidance of tnith and 
in the fear of the Lord, had more fully in- 
Btructed me, I set down in simple style some 
of what I had coUected, and omitted much, so 
that while virgins will delight to read the 
mighty deeds of the virgin [Cläre] the minds 
of the Ignorant may not find a cause tor ob- 
scurity in diffusion of words. )>t nwn, there- 
fore follow the new disdples of the Word 
made Sesh; let women imitate Cläre, the fol- 
lower of the Mother of God, the new leader 
of womankind. But In so much as to thee, 
Most Holy Father, belongeth füll authority to 
correct, curtail and add to these things, so is 
my will submis^ve, obedient and obsequious 
in all. May the Lord Jesus grant thee to fare 
well now and for all time. Amen. 



The Ufa of 




THIS wonderful woman, clear alike in 
name and in deed,** belonged to a 
family of no small luster of the city of Assisi. 
Having been first a fellow-citizen of the 
Blcssed Francis on earth, she afterward came 
to reign with him on high. Her father was 
a knight,'* and she was of knightly lineage on 
both sides; her family was wealthy and, after 
the manner of the country, owned extensive 
possessicns. Her mother, Ortolana by name,*' 
about to bring forth a fruitful plantlet in the 
garden of the Church. was herselt not wanting 
in good fruit. For although she bore the yoke 
of marriage and was bound by household ties, 
yet she devoted as much of her time as might 
be to the divine service and was unrenütting 
in works of piety. This devout woman crossed 
the sea with other pUgrims and, having visited 
those Spots which the God-man hallowed by 
His sacred footprints, at length returned home 
with joy. On another occasion she went to 
pray at St Michael,*' and with still greater 
devotion did she visit the shrines of the 

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Saint Cläre 7 

AposUes. What more need be said? By the 
fruit the tree is known,* and the fruit is com- 
mendable in virtue of the tree. An abundance 
of the dtvine favor preceded in the root so that 
a wealth of holiness might follow in the 
branchlet. When finally Ortolana was wtth 
child and the time of her delivery was at hand, 
as Bhe prajred earnestly before die cross in a 
certatn church, to the end that the Cnicüied 
might bring her tafely through the perils of 
chüdbirth, she heard a voice saying to her: 
"Fear not, woman, for thou shalt in safety 
bring forth a light which will illumine the 
World more clearly." Taught by this oracle, 
Ortolana directed that the new-born infant, 
when bom again in holy Baptism, be named 
Cläre in the hope that the brightness of the 
promised light might in some way be verified 
after the good pleasure of the Divine Will.*' 

•Malt. 12:33. 



Th Lift •/ 


HARDLY had the Uttle Cläre seen the 
light than, Rtiy cnough, she began to 
glisten with lightsomeness in the darkness of 
the World, and during her tender years she be- 
came resplendent by virtue of her conduct. 
•{ First of all, she leamed with a docile heart, the 
ntdiments of faith Irota her mother's Hps, and 
as the Spirit working within her at the aame 
time formed her into a most pure vase, she be- 
came known as a vessel of grace, indeed. Cläre 
gladly stretched out her hands to the poor,* 
and from the abundance of her house she sup- 
plied the wants of many.f And in order that 
her sacrifice might be more pleasing to God, 
she deprived her own Uttle body of delicacies 
and, secretly sending them out by messengers, 
relieved the hunger of the orphans. In this 
wise, mercy growing up with her4 she showed 
a tender heart, commiserating the miseries of 
the nÜMrable.** Cläre loved the practice of 
boly prayer, and so often experienced its good 

•See Prov. 31:20. 
tS« II Cor. 8:14. 
JJob 3i:i& 

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Saint Cläre 9 

odor * that little by little she accustomed her- 
seif to a life of seclusion. Since she had no 
prayer-beads by telUng which she might 
say her Pater Natter, she counted out her little 
orisons to God by means of a heap of pebbles.'* 
. When, therefore, Cläre bcgan to feel the 
first goads of Divine Love, she saw that the 
fleeting unage of worldly beauty was to be 
spumed and, taught by the unction of the 
Spirit. she valued the enipty things of the 
World according to their worthlessness. 
. Hidden under her soft and coatly garmcnts 
she wore a little hair shirt, thus dressing with 
the worid outwardly while putting on Christ 
inwardly.f But when at length her famtly 
wished Cläre to make a noble alliance, she in 
nowise acquiesced, but, feigning to postpone 
earthly espousals, commended her virginity to 
God. Such were tbe manifestations of Clare's 
virtues in her patemal home; such tbe first 
fruits of the Spirit; such the preludes of her 
holiness. Redolent as she was, therefore, with 
so great fragrance, Cläre made herseif known 
by her sweet odor, even as a vessel of aromat- 
ical spices does though it be closed. Thus, all 
unknown to herseif, Cläre began to be praised 
by her neighbors and, the fame of her secret 
acts being published, the report of her good- 
ness was noised among the people. 

•An allusion to II Cor. a: 15. 
t See Rom. 13 : 14, and Gal. 3 : 37. 



The Life of 




HEARING of the now famous name of 
Francis, wbo, like a new man,* had re- 
stored by new virtucs the path of perfection 
forgotten in the world, Cläre at once was de- 
sirous to hear and see him,'^ being moved 
thereto by the Fatfaer of Spirits, whose first 
promptings both had followed, albeit In a dif< 
ferent manner. And he [Francis], Struck by 
the fair fame of so favored a maiden, was not 
less wishful to see her and hold converse with 
her, for, being wholly eager for spoils and hav- 
ing come to depopulate the kingdom of this 
world, he would fain in some way snatch tbis 
noble prey from the wicked world and restore 
her to her God-f Francis visited Cläre and she 
more often visited him, so ordering the times 
of tbeir Visits that their holy meetings might 
neither become known by man nor disparaged 
by public rumor. For, accompanied by a Single 
coniidential companion,** the girl, going forth 
from her patemal home in secret, frequently 

* Ar allusion to Eph. 4 : 24. 

t See Git. 1 : 4. 





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Samt Cläre 11 

visited the man of God; to her his words 
eeemed a flame and his deeds more than 
human. Father Francis exhorted her to con- 
tempt of the world, showing her in vivid 
words the barrenness of earthly hopes and the - 
deceitfulness of earthly beauty.'^ He instilled 
into her ears the sweet espousals of Christ, 
persuading her to conserve the pearl of her 
maidenly purity for that Blessed Spouse who 
out of love became Man. Bot wfay multiply 
words? At the eatrea^ of the tnost holy 
Father, wfao acted deftly after the manner of a 
most faithful bridesman, the virgin did not 
delay to give her consent And forthwith a 
glimpse of the heavenly joys was opened up to 
her, the sight of which made the world itself 
seem of small price, the desire of which made 
her melt, as it were, away; the love of which 
made her aspire after the supemal espousals. 
For, glowing with celestial fire, Cläre so looked 
down on the glory of earthly vanity that 
nothing of the world's applause cleaved to her 
affections. Dreading, moreover, the allure- 
ments of the flesh, she resolved to kcep herseif 
unspotted,* desiring to make her body a temple 
to God alone and striving by vir^ue to merit 
espousals with the great King. Thenceforth 
Cläre committed herseif wholly to the guidance 
of Francis, considering him to be, after God, 
*The Latin reads, thorum Ut delicto se nescituram 
proponit—sn allusion to Wis. 3: 13. 




The Üfe of 

the director of her Steps. From that time her 
soul depended upon his holy admonltions, and 
she received with a ready heart whatever he 
Said to her of the good Jesus. She was already 
weary of the beauty of worldly apparel and 
she accounted but as düng all the things the 
World esteems, that she tnight gain Christ* 

*A reference to PhiL 3:& 







FURTHERMORE, lest mundane dust 
might in the future sully the unspotted 
miiTOr of her soul, or mundane contag^on cor- 
nipt Cläre at such a susceptible age, tfae good 
Father hastened to lead her out of the dark 
World. The solemnitjr of Palm Sunday was 
drawing nigh when the girl wtth great fervor 
betook herseif tb the Man of God for counsel 
as to her rctreat from the world, as to what 
was to be done, and how sfae was to do it. 
Pather Francis ordained that on the feast day 
Cläre, dressed out and adorned, should come 
to the blesstng of the palma with the rest of 
the people: that on the night foUowing she 
should go forth from the camp and that her 
worldly joy be tumed into mouming for the 
Lord's Passion.* When Sunday had come, the 
girl, radiant in festive array among the crowd 
of women, entered the church with the others. 

•There arc two Scriptural allusions here: "Esint 
extra casira" (Heb. 13 : 13) ; mundanum gatidiuin luc- 
Ittm convcrial in Dominieat Paiiionit" (Jas. 4:9}. 


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14 The Ufe of 

There a noteworthy presage occurred, for 
whereas the rest pressed forward to receive 
the branches, Cläre through tnodesty remained 
in her place without moving, whereupon the 
Prelate, descending from the Steps, came to 
her and put a palm in her hands.°' Tbc fol- 
lowing night Cläre set about the accompKsh- 
ment of the Saint's conunand, and, with some 
trusty companions,** began her longed-for 
flight. But not wishing to leave by the usual 
door, she broke open, with a strength that 
astonished herseif, another one which was 
walted up by a mass of beams and stones.'"* 
Thus leaving behind her, home, city and kin- 
dred, Cläre hastened to St. Mary of the Porzi- 
uncola, where the Friars who were keeping 
vigtl at the little altar with lighted torches 
received the virgin Cläre. Immediately casting 
aside the sordidness of Babylon, she there gave 
a biU of divorce to the world,* and forsook 
her various Ornaments, her tresses being shom 
at the hands of the Friars."" Nor was it be- 
fitting that the Order of virginity to be raised 
up toward evening '"^ should flower elsewhere 
than in the sanctuary of her who, first and 
most worthy of all, was alone a virgin and a 
mother. Thts is that place in which the new 
militia of the poor under the leadership of 
Francis took on its happy beginnings "" that it 
might be clearly manifest that both reUgions 
* See Deut. 24 : r. 



Saint Cläre 15 

wer« brought forth by the Mother of Mercies 
I in her inn.* But after Cläre had recetved the 

holy hvery of Penance before the altar of the 
Blessed Mary, and after the humble handmaid 
had been espoused to Christ as if by the couch 
of this Virgin, St. Francis straightway led her 
to the Church of St. Paul, to abide in that 
place until tbe Most High should provide an- 

* An alliuion to Luke 2 : 7. 





WHEN the news faad reached her heart- 
broken kinsfolk, they condemned the 
deed of the girl and her proposal, and, banding 
together, they ran to the spot, endeavoring to 
attain what they could not. They resorted to 
main force, to baneful counsels, to bland 
promtses, urging Cläre to withdraw from such 
a sorry plight, which was unworthy of her 
birth and unheard of in those parts. But 
Cläre, laying hold of the altar cloths and bar- 
ing her tonsured head, declared that nothing 
would henceforth separate her from the service 
of Christ Her courage increased as the war 
waged by her ktndred waxed strenger; and 
love wounded by ill-treatment gave her 
strength. Thus, even thus, for many days to- 
gether while she bore wtth this obstacle in 
the way of the Lord and while her kinsfolk 
set tbemselves against her purpose of holioess, 
Clare's courage faiied not, neither did her fer- 
vor dimtntsh, but between harsh words and 
deeds she encouraged herseif to hope, untU 
finally her ktndred, withdrawing their opposi- 



Smnt Cläre 17 

tion, quieted down. After a few days' interval 
Cläre moved to the Church of S. Angelo de 
Paiuo,*" but as her mind was not fully at rest 
there, she at last, by the advice of Blessed 
Francis, removed to the Church of S. Dami- 
ano.'** There fastening the anchor, as it were, 
of her mind for good, she concemed herseif no 
longer about a ehange of abode. She did not 
waver because of the straitness of the place 
nor shrink back at its loneliness. This is that 
church for the repair of which St. Francis 
toiled so wondrously and to the priest of which 
he had oEFered money for the work of restora- 
tion. This is that church in which, while 
Francis was praying, a voice Coming down 
from the wood of the cross resounded, "Fran- 
cis, go repair My house, which, as thou seest, is 
utterly destroyed," "^ In this little place the 
virgin Cläre shut herseif up as in a prison for 
the love of her Heavenly Spouse. Here hiding 
herseif from the turmoil of the world, she con- 
fined her body so long as she lived. Building 
a nest in the hollow places of this wall, the 
dove, covered with silver,* brought forth the 
Community of the virgins of Christ, instituted 
a holy monastery, founded the Order of the 
Poor Ladies. Here in the way of penance she 
wore out her body; *'" here she sowed the seed 
of perfect justice; here by her own example 

*An allusion to Cant. 3: 14, and Fs. 67; 14. 

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18 The Uff of 

she pointed the way to them that were to fol- 
low. In this narrow little retreat for forty-two 
years Cläre broke the alabaster of her body 
with the stripes of discipline, that the house 
of the Church might be filled with the fra- 
grance of her ointments.* How gloriously she 
lived in this place will become dear ii it be 
first narrated how many and how great were 
the number of the souls who came through her 
to Christ 

* An allusion to Jofan 12: 3. 



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( u 



^HE fame of the sanctity of tbe vti^in 
Cläre soon spread through the neigh- 
boring provinces, so tfaat women from every 
side ran to the odor of her ointments.* '-Vir- 
gins hastened after her example to consecrate 
themselves to Chris$t married women strove 
to live more chastely; the noble and the illus- 
trious, contemning stately pataces, built for 
themselves narrow cloisters and deemed it a 
great glory to live for Christ in sackcloth and 
ashes. Youths in eager crowds were indted 
to holy conflict and were spurred on by the 
heroic example of the weaker sex to spum the 
allurements of the flesh. In (ine, many already 
united in marriage bound themselves by the 
law of continency by mutual consent: the 
men passed to the Orders, the women to the 
monasteries. The mother invited the daughter 
to Christ, and the daughter the mother; the 
sister drew her ststers, and the aunt her nieces. 
All desired to serve Christ with equal fervor; 
all wished to be made partakers in this angelic 
life which had become renowned through 
. \ • See Cant i : 3. 


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The Ufe of 

Cläre. Innumerable virgins, moved by the ac- 
counts of Cläre, not being able to embrace the 
life of the Cloister, sought to live as religious 
without a rule in their own homea. Tbus did 
the vtrgin Cläre bring forth by her example 
such great fruits of salvation that in her would 
seem to be fuIfUIed the prophetic utterance: 
"Many are the children of the desolate more 
tban of her that hath a husband.** * 

•Isaias 54: 1. 






CiST the new source of heavenly blessing 
which had Sprung up in the vale 
of Spoleto "" flhould in a ehort tinae dry 
up, it grew, Divine Providence so dis- 
posing, into a river, so that it might makc 
the whole City of the Church joyful.* 
For the novelty of such things spread far 
and Wide in the world and everywfaere be- 
gan to gain souls for Christ. Cläre, remaining 
enclosed, began to enlighten the whole earth 
and to become renowned by the praises of all. 
The fame of her virtucs filled the dwellings 
of illustrious women ; it reached the palaces of 
duchesses, and even the private apartments of 
queens. The flower of the nobility stooped to 
follow in her Steps, and its pride of lineage 
was brought low by holy humtlity. Not a few 
worthy of being given in marriage to dukcs 
and kings did severe penance, inspired by the 
example of Cläre,'*** and those who had mar- 
ried potentates took Cläre as tfaeir model. 
Cities Mrithout nutnber were adomed with mon- 



22 The ÜU of 

asteries, and even country districts and moun- 
tain places were beautiüed with the dwellings 
of this celestial institute.^^* By the most holy 
example of Cläre the esteem of chastity in- 
creased in the worM and virginity, come to 
life again, began to flourish. With these 
blessed fiowers brought forth by Cläre the 
Church has happily become verdant in cur day, 
and with them she, too, asks to be surrounded, 
saying: "Stay me up with fiowers , . , be- 
cause I languish with love." * But now our 
pen must needs revert to our subject, that it 
may be made known of what sort was her 
manner of life. 

*CanL 2:5. 


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CLÄRE, the comer-stone and noble foun- 
dation öf her Order, sought from the 
very first to raise the edifice of all virtues upon 
the basis of holy humility. For she promised 
holy obedience to the Blessed Francis, and 
from this pronüse ahe never receded. During 
the three years that foHowed her conversion 
Cläre decUned the name and ofBce of Abbess, 
humbly wishing to be subject rather than to 
be set over others, and to serve most willingly 
among the daughters of Christ rather than to 
be served. But on being urged by the Blessed \ 
Francis, «he finally undertook the government ' 
of the Ladies."^ Because of assuming this 
oflice fear and not haughtiness arose in her 
heart, nor was her freedom augmented, but 
rather diminished. For the more she was seen 
to be raised above others by any kind of gov- 
emance, the more lowly, the more fit to serve, 
and the less worthy of esteem she was in her ■ 
own eyes. She never shrank from any menial 
duty. so that she often poured water on the 
hands of the Sisters, assisted those who were 
infinn and served those who were eating. It 
was with great reluctance that she ever com- 



24 The Ufe of 

manded anything. She did a tliing of her own 
accord, preferring to perform a task herselE 
than to impose it on the Sisters. With that 
noble spirit of hers Cläre herseif waited upon 
the Sisters who.were ill and washed them, 
neither shirking what was disagreeable nor 
dreading what was disgusting.*'* She often 
washed the feet of the servants retuming from 
without, and having washed their feet, she was ' 
wont to kiss them. She was once washing the 
feet of a certain servant and, teing about to 
kiss them, the servant, not brooking so great 
humility, withdrew her foot, thus striking her 
lady in the face. But Cläre, gently grasping 
the servant's foot again, imprinted a fervent 
kiss upon the sole of it. 


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HER poverty in regard to all things in- 
duded that poverty ol spirit which is 
tnie humility. And first of all, in the very 
beginning of her conversion, Cläre caused the ^ 
patemal inheritance which had come to her ' 
to be sold and, reserving nothing of the price 
for herseif, gave it all to the poor. Thus, 
having left the world without and betng en- 
riched within she was able, not being bur- 
dened with a purse, to run after Christ. In 
fine she made with holy poverty so strict a 
compact and acquired such a love for it that 
she wished not to have anything save only 
the Lord Christ, nor did she permit her daugh- 
ters to possess aught besides. For she knew 
that the most precious pearl of heavenly dcsire 
which she had bought by selling all that she 
had * was not to be possessed along with a 
carking care for worldly things. She fre- 
' quently impressed upon the Sisters by her 
words that the Community would be pleasing 
to God only when it was rieh in poverty, and 
that then only would it remain firm forever if it 
was always fortified by the most high poverty. 
*An allusion to Matt 13.46. 



26 The Life of 

She exhorted them to be conformed in the 
little ncst of poverty to Christ the Poor One, 
whom His poor little Mother had lain as a 
Babe in a narrow mar.ger.* With this peculiar 
reminder Cläre adorn.d her breast, as if with a 
golden necklace, k ■: » the dust of worldly 
things might creep Into her heart. Wishing 
that her Order shou!d bear the title of Pov- 
erty, Cläre petitioned Innocent III, of bappy 
tnemory, for the privilege of Poverty. This 
magnanimous man, congratulating the virgin 
upon such fervor, declared hers to be a unique 
proposal, since never before had a like privilege 
been demanded of the Apostolic See. And in 
Order that an unusual favor might respond to 
an unusual request, the Pontiff, with great joy, 
himself wrote with his own band '" the first 
letters of the privilege asked for. The Lord 
Pope Gregory, of happy memory, a man most 
worthy of the Chair as he was most venerable 
in merits,"* loved the Saint most dearly with 
a paternal affection. As he was seeking to per- 
suade her that, on account of the condition of 
the times and the dangers of the age, she 
should consent to have some possessions wbich 
he himself liberally offered, she resisted with 
an unyielding resolve and would in nowise 
acquiesce. To whom the Pontiff answered: 
"If thou fearest tby vow, we release thee from 
the vow." "Holy Father," she said, "Never 
*Se« Luke 3:7. 


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Saint Cläre 27 

do I wish to be released in anywise from 
following Christ forever." "• 

The fragments of bread and other odds and 
ends which the questors brought back she re> 
ceived most gladly. and as if Baddened by 
whole loave«, rejoiced rather in broken pieces.'" 
In Short» she strove to become conformed 
by a most perfect poverty to the poor Cnidfied 
One, to the end that no perishable thing migbt 
separate the Lover from his beloved or hinder 
her course toward God. There now occur two 
miradea which this lover of poverty merited 
to work. 


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THERE was once only a Single loaf of 
bread in the monastery, and the tiine 
of hunger and the hour for eating had come. 
Having called the refectorian, the Saint bade 
her divide the loaf and send half of it to the 
Friars and keep the rest for the Sisters. Of 
this remaining half she ordered fifty pieces to 
be made, according to the number of the 
Ladies, and placed before them at the table 
of Poverty. When the devout daughter made 
answer that in this case the ancient miracles 
of Christ would be necessary in order that 
such a small piece of bread might be divided 
into fifty parts,* the mother repHed, "Do what 
I teil thee, daughter, and trust what I say." 
While the daughter hastened to fulfill the 
mother's conunands, the mother hastened to 
direct her pious ngbs to her Christ for her 
daughters. By the Divine favor the little piece 
of bread increased in the hands of her who 
broke it and an abundant portion was pro- 
vided for each one of the Community.'** 

♦An allusion to John 6:7 //, 


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ON A certain day the oil had lo eom- 
pletely failed the handmaids of Christ 
that there was no seasoning even for the weak. 
The Lady Cläre took a vessel and this mistress 
of humility washed it with her own hands ; she 
then placed this empty vessel apart, that the 
Brother que&tor should take it, and the Brother 
was called that he might seck oil. The de- 
voted Brother hastened to relieve such great 
want and ran to (etch the vessel. "But it is 
not of him that wUleth nor of him that ninneth, 
hut of Cod that sheweth mercy." * For 
through the Intervention of Cod aloDe that 
vessel was found filled with oil, the prayer 
of St. Cläre having anticipated the solicitude 
of the Friar for the succor of the poor daugh- 
ters. The aforesaid Brother however, having 
seemingly been called in vain, murmuring ' a 
little Said: "These women have called me in 
jest, for behold the vessel is fulll" 

• Rom 9 : 16. 



The Ufc o/ 


IT WERE tnore fitting perhaps to be silent 
as to Clare's tnortification of her flesh 
than to speak of it, since tbe things she did 
were of such kind as to astonish the hearer 
and to tax one's creduUty. It was a small 
thing that ihe was wont to cover rather than 
to warm her little body wtth a Single small 
tunic and a poor mantle made of rough cloth. 
Nor is it to be wondered at that she was alto- 
gether unacquainted with the use of shoes. 
It was no great thing for her to continue her 
fasts the whole time er to use a hard bed. 
For in all these things, since the others in 
her monastery did the same. Cläre does not 
perhaps merit any special praise. But what 
covenant is there between a vir^in's flesh and 
a pigskin garment? For the most holy virgin 
had procured for herseif a garment made of a 
bog's skin, which she wore secretly beneath 
her tunic with the roughly-cut bairs next to her 
flesh. She was accustomed at times to wear 
a rough Shirt made of horses' hair. twisted in 
a knot, which was fastened to her body on 
either side by little raw cords. When Cläre 


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Sa'ml Cläre 


bad lent this garment to one of the household 
who had asked For tt, and the latter had put 
it on, she quickly succumbed to such harshness 
and gave it up after three days with more 
readiness than she had cheerfulness in asking 
for it. The bare ground and sometimes cut- 
tings of vines served for ber bed ; a hard block 
of wood placed under her bead took the place 
of a pillow. In the courte of time, her body 
having become weakened, Cläre lay on a mat 
and kiiidly allowed her head a little straw. But 
after a long illness began to lay hold of the 
body that had been to harshly treated. Cläre 
et the command of the Blessed Francis, used a 
sack Glied with straw. Moreover, so great was 
the rigor of her abstinence in fasting that she 
would scarcely have lived in the body on the 
meager fare she took unless another power 
kept her up. For while she was well, fasting 
upon bread and water during the greater Lent 
and the Lent of St. Martin, the Bishop,"* she 
tasted wine only on Sundays if she had any. 
And that you who hear it may wonder at what 
you cannot Imitate, she took no food whatever 
on three days of the week during these Lents, 
to wit on Monday, Wednesday and Friday. 
Thus the days of her meager fare and the days 
of her strict mortification foUowed one another 
in such wise that the vigil of perfect fasting 
was, as it were, made up for by the feast of 
bread and water. No wonder if such sever- 



32 The Ufe of 

ity, kept up for a long time, made Cläre sub- 
ject to infirmities; if it consumed her strength; 
if it undermined her bodUy vigor. Wherefore 
her most attached daughters were wont to pity 
their mother, and they deplored with tears 
those deaths which sbe underwent daily. The 
Blessed Francis and the Bisfaop of Assisi 
finally forbade Cläre tbese three days of de- 
stnictive fast, commanding that ahe allow no 
day to pass without taking a repast of at least 
one ounce and a half of bread. Although severe 
treatment of the body as a rule engender» 
affliction of spirit it was far otherwise with 
Cläre. Por she preserved a pleasant and joyful 
countenance in all her mortification, so that 
she seemed either not to feel bodUy austerities 
or to laugh at them, From which it is very 
easy to understand how the holy joy with 
which she abounded interiorly became visible 
exteriorly: for love of heart lightens cfaastise- 
ment of the body. 




SHE who, being thus prematurely dead in 
the flesh, was also wholly a stranger to 
the World, occupied ber soul continually with 
holy prayer and tbe Divine praises. She had'^ 
already directed the most fervent gaze of her 
inward desire toward the light ; and in Propor- 
tion as she soarcd above things of earth, the 
depths of her soul were enlarged to receive 
the showers of grace. For long periods after 
Compline she prayed with the Sisters; and 
when ehe burst into a flood of tears the others 
were moved to weep also. And after the rest 
bad gone to their hard couches to rest their 
tired limbs, Cläre remained watchful and un- 
wearied in prayer, so that white sieep lay 
hold of the others she migbt by stealth, as it 
were, receive the veins of the Divine whisf>er.* 
Prostrate on her face in prayer, she would 
very often bedew the ground with her tears 
and caress it with her kisses, so that she 
seemed ever to clasp her Jesus on whose feet 
those tears flowed and tbose kisses were im- 
printed-t Once in the dead of night, as she 

• See Job 4 ■■ 12- 

t An alliision to Luke 7-3ß ff- 



34 Tht Uh al 

was weeping, the angel of darkness stood by , 
htr in the form of a black boy and admonished 
her, saying: "Weep not so much, for thou shalt 
become blind." "He will not be blind who 
shall see God," straightway replied Cläre, 
whereupon he departed in confusion. The 
same night after Matins, white Cläre was pray- 
ing as usual bathed in tears, the deceitful 
counsellor approached. "Weep not so much," 
he Said, "lest in the end thy brain, becoming 
softened, should flow out through thy nose: 
in any case thou wilt have a twisted nose." 
"He suffereth no injury," replied Cläre quickly, 
"who serveth the Lord," and the devil at once 
maldng off, vanished. How much strength she 
received in the fumace of fervent prayer and 
how much the Divine goodness sweetened her 
in its enjoyment were manifested by different 
tokens. For when she retumed with gladness 
from holy prayer she brought wtth her from 
the fire of the Lord's altar buming words 
which enkindled the hearts of the Ststers. 
They marveled indeed at the sweetness that 
proceeded from her Ups and to see her face 
more resplendent than usual, for God had cer- 
tainly provided in Hta sweetness for the poor 
one,* and had manifested outwardly in her 
body how her mind had been Glied with true 
light in prayer. Thus in this unstable wörld 
Cläre, joined most steadfastly to her noble 
•See Ps. 67:11. 



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Saint Cläre 


Spouse, took continual delight in the things 
tbat are above. Thus in this transitory globe 
sustained by solid virtue and enclosing the 
trcasure of glory in an earthen veasel,* she 
remained below aa to her body but on high as 
to her mind. It was her custom to go to 
Matins before the younger ones, whom quietly 
arounng by knocking she called to the praises. 
She would often Ught the lamps while the 
otbers were asleep and ring the bell herseif. 
There was no place for the body and no room 
for slothfulness in her Community, where a 
Sharp reprimand aroused any languor in 
prayer and in the Service of the Lord.'*" 

•See 11 Cor. 4:7- 



r/r« Dfe of 






AT THIS point we may perhaps relate 
some great things wrought by her 
praycrs, aa well founded in truth as worthy 
of venerattoiL ^y reason of the calamlties 
which the Church suSered in different parts 
of the World under the Emperor Frederickpthe 
Valley of Spoleto very often drank of the 
chalice of wrath. Bands of soldiers and of 
Saracen archers numerous as bees were sta- 
tioned by the imperial command to lay waste 
fortified Castles and to besiege cities.*" And 
when at one time their hostile fury was di- 
rected against Assisi, the special city of God, 
and the army was already close to the gates, 
the Saracens, that worst of races who thirst 
for the blood of Christians and most shame- 
lessly attempt every wickedness, rushed into 
the confüies of S. Damiano, even into the 
doister of the virgins. The hearts of the 
ladies sank within them from fear, their 
voices trembled with terror, and they went in 
tears to the mother. Although she was Ul, 
Cläre with a stout heart directed that she be 


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Saint Cläre 


led to the door and placed before the enemy, 
a silver casket enclosed in ivory, in whicb the 
Body of the Holy of Holies was tnost devoutly 
kept, preceding her. And as she wholly pros- 
trated herseif before the Lord in prayer she 
Said to her Chriit amid teart : "Doth it please 
Thee, my Lord, to deliver Thy defenceless 
handmaids, wbom I faave nourished with Thy 
love. into the hands of the pagans? Defend. 
O Lord. I besecch Thee, these Thy servants 
whom I in this hour am unable to defend." 
Preaently He sent her of His special grace a 
voice as if of a Itttle child which sounded in 
her ears: "I will always defend thee." "My 
Lord," she said, "and if it please Thee protect 
the city, for it supporteth us for love of Thee." 
And the Lord answered : "It will be troubled, 
but it shall be defended by My protection." 
Then the virgin, raising her tearful face, com- 
forted the weeping, saying: "Rest assured, I 
bid you, httle daughters, that ye shall suffer 
no härm; only trust in Christ." Nor had an 
instant elapsed before, the boldness of these 
dogs being changed into fear, they quickly de- 
scended the walls they had scaled, being over- 
thrown by the power of her prayers.'^* Then 
straightway Cläre soleranly enjoined those 
who had heard the aforesaid voice, saying: 
"Be most careful in no way, dearest daughters, 
to reveal that voice to any one so long as I 


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The Life of 




AT ANOTHER time, Vitalis of Aversa. a 
man deairous of renown and valiant in 
battle, led the imperial army, which he com- 
manded as captain, against Assisi. He had 
strtpped thfe land of trees, devastated the entire 
countryside, and thus was ready to besiege 
the city. In menacing words he swore that he 
would never withdraw unti) he had taken it; 
and things had come to such a pass that the 
city was thought to be in immediate danger. 
When Cläre, the servant of Christ, heard this, 
she sighed deeply and, calling the Sistera to 
her, Said: "Frotn tMs city, dearest daughters, 
we have daily received many benefits: it 
would be most ungratefui if we were not to 
aid it so far as we can in the time of its need." 
She ordered ashes to be brought and told the 
Sisters to bare their heads. And she first 
iprinkied her own uncovered head copiously 
with ashes and then placed some on the heads 
of the others. "Betake yourselves," she said, 
"to our Lord and beg with all your hearts for 
the deliverance of the city." Why go into de- 



Saint Cläre 39 

tails? Why recount the teara of the virgins 
or their vehement prayers? The foUowing 
morning the merciful God so made issue with 
temptation * that the entire army was broken 
up and the proud man departed» contrary to 
his vows; neither did he harass that land any 
further. For the leader of the war himself 
perished by the sword soon afterward.*** 

* Aa allasioa te I Cor. lo: 13. 



Tht Life »f 




WE MUST not pass over in silence that 
wonderful power td her prayer bjr 
which in the very beginning of her conversion 
Cläre converted a soul to God and defended 
the one converted. For she had a sister tender 
in years, her own sister by nature and in 
purity."* Desiring her conversion, Cläre, 
among the first fniits of the prayer which she 
offered to God in the fullness of her heart, 
asked eamestly that, as she had been of one 
soul with her sister whilst in the world, so tbey 
might now be of one mind in the service of 
God. She prayed, therefore, importunately to 
the Father of Mercies that the world might 
become insipid to her sister Agnes who had 
been left at home, that she might savor the 
sweetness of God and so tum from any inten- 
tiott of eartbly nuptials to the union of Hia 
love; that along with herseif Agnes might wed 
the Spouse of Glory in perpetual virginity. For, 
although of different temperaments, they were , 
attached to each other by a deep mutual love 
wbich had made this new Separation painful 


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Saint Cläre 


to both. Tbc Divine Majesty gave speedy 
heed to the powerful petitioner and the more 
quickly granted her tbis first gift which sfae 
asked for especially, and which delighted God 
most to give. Stxteen days after the conver- 
sion of Cläre, Agnes, moved by the Divine 
Spirit, hastened to her si&ter *" and, opening 
to her the secrets of her beart, dedared that 
she wished to give heraeU wholly to the Serv- 
ice of the Lord. Cläre joyfully embraced her, 
saying: "I give thanks to God, most sweet 
sister, that He hath hearkened to my solicitude 
conceming thee." 

This wonderful conversion was followed by 
a protection no less marvelous. For while the 
happy sisters wcre following the footsteps of 
Christ in the Church of S. Angelo de Panzo, 
and while she wbo knew more of the things of 
the Lord instructed ber novtce and sister, 
fresb persecutions were suddenly set on foot 
against the girls by their relatives. ' Hearing 
that Agnes had gone over to Cläre, twelve 
men, infuriated with rage, ran to the place the 
next day and outwardly dissimulating their 
malicious purpose feigned a peaceful entry. 
Turning at once to Agnes — for they had long 
ance despaired of Cläre — "Why." they said, 
"didst thou come to this place? Make ready at 
once to retum home with us." When she re- 
plied that she was unwilling to leave her sister 
Cläre, one of the knights in an outburst of 



42 The Üfe of 

anger rushed upon her and, sparing neitber 
blows nor kicks, attempted to drag her away 
by the bair, while the others pressed forward 
and lifted her up in their arms. But the young 
girl, captured as it were by lions and snatched 
out of the hands of the Lord, cried out: "Help 
me, dearest sister, and auffer me not to be 
taken from Christ the Lord." Wherefore, 
whilst ber rough captors were dragging the 
struggling gtrl down the slope of the moun- 
tain, rending her dothing and strewing tbe 
way with her tom hatr, Cläre in tears, pros- 
trating faerself in prayer, asked tbat atrength 
of will might be granted to her sister and tbat 
the force of men Riight be overcome by the 
Divine power. Suddenly the body of Agnes 
as she lay on the ground seemed to be fixed 
there so that several men striving with all their 
might were not able to carry her across a little 
brook. Some others running from the fields 
and vineyards came to aid them, but they were 
unable in any way to raise tbe body from the 
ground. And when they faiied in their at- 
tempt they praised the miracle in mocldng 
terms, saying: "She was eating lead all night 
and, therefore, it is no wonder she is so beavy." 
And now when the Lord Monaldus, Agnes'« 
unde, was so beside himself with rage tbat he 
would fain have dealt ber a fatal blow, a ter- 
rible pain suddenly seized the arm he had 
raised and its acuteness tormented him for a 



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Saint Cläre 43 

long time. But behold after the long struggle, 
Cläre proceeding to the spot besought her 
relatives to desist from such a conflict and 
to entrust Agnes, who lay there half dead, to 
her care. After they had withdrawn in bitter- 
ness without fulfilling thcir purpose, Agnes 
arose cheerfully and rejoicing in the crosa of 
Christ for whom she had fought this firtt 
battle, now gave herseif up (orever to the 
Divine service. Then the Blessed Francis cut 
off her hair with his own hands and instnicted 
her along with her sister in the way of th« 
Lord. Since it wouM be impossible, however, 
to describe in a few words the great perfec- 
tion of her life,'" let us retum to Cläre. 



The Ufe 0/ 


IT IS no wonder if the prayers of Cläre so 
tnuch availed against the malice of men 
when they overpowered even the very demotis. 
A certain devout woman from the diocese of 
Pisa once came to the place **^ to give thanks 
to God and to St. Cläre tbat, through the 
merits of the Saint, she had been freed from 
five demons. For the demons at their expul- 
Bion, confessed that the prayers of St. Cläre 
had enraged them and cast them out of the 
body of the possessed. Not without reason 
did the Lord Pope Gregory place very great 
faith in the prayers of this Saint, for he had 
experienced their marvelous virtue and efS- 
cacy. Often indeed when some new difficulty 
would arise, as is wont to happen, both when 
he was Bishop of Ostia and after he had been 
raised to the Apostolic See, he would call upon 
the same virgin by letter to ask her assistance, 
and he received help."* That the Vicar of 
Christ should seek succor tram. a handmaid of 
Christ and conunend himself to her aid U an 
example surely as remarkable for humility as 
it is worthy of all imitation. He well knew 


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Saint Cläre 


what love can do and how freely pure virgins 
have access to the Council Chamber of Majesty. 
For if the King of Heaven gives Himself to 
those who love Htm ardently, what is there, 
if it be expedient, that He will not grant to 
their pious prayers? 






HOW great was the devotion St. Cläre 
feit toward the Sacrament of the Altar . 
is shown by the fact that during the severe 
illness wfakh had confined her to bed she had 
herseif raised in a sitting position and sup- 
ported by props, and thtis she spun the finest 
linens. From these she made more than ßfty 
sets of corporals and, enclosing them in silken 
or purple burses, sent them to different 
churches in the plains and mountains about 
Assisi."* When about to receive the Body 
of the Lord, Cläre shed buming tears and ap- 
proached with awe, for she feared Hirn not 
less hidden in the Sacrament than ruling 
heaven and earth.*** 


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AS CLÄRE in her infirmity was mindful 
of Christ,* so Christ also visited her in 
her sufTerings. At the hour of the Nativity, 
when the earth sings with the angels of the 
new-born Babe, the othcr Ladies went to the 
oratory for Matins and left the Mother alone, 
wcighed down with illness. Cläre then began 
to think on the little Jesus and to grieve sorely 
that she tnight not be present at His praises, 
and Said with a sigh, "Lord God, behold I 
am left alone with Thee in this place." And lol 
suddenly the wonderiul music that was being 
sung in the Church of S. Francesco began to 
resound in her ears; she heard the voices of 
the Friars chanting the psalter, she listened 
to the harmonies of the singers; she even per- 
ceived the sound of the organ. She was by no 
means so near to the place that all this could 
happen in the natural order unless either the 
solemnity was brought nearer to her by Divine 

• The Latin memoria « 
to Latn. 3 : 30. 

r trat contains an allusion 


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48 The Life of 

influence or her hearing was endow^d with 
superhuman power."' But what surpasses 
even this marvel is the fact that Cläre was 
worthy to see the manger of the Lord. In the 
morning when her daughters came to her 
the Blessed Cläre said: "Blessed be the Lord 
Jesus Christ, who when ye left me did not 
abandon me. By the grace of Christ I have 
indeed heard all the solemnities which were 
celebrated last night in the Church of S. 
Francesco." *" 

D,g,l,..cbyGOOglC I 



CLÄRE wat accustomed to grieve over the 
Lord't Passion. She would at one time < 
draw from the Sacred Wounds lorrowful 
affectioni; at another she disdained sweeter 
joys. The tears of the suffering Christ in- 
ebriated her, and she ofteo represented to her 
memory Hirn whom love had impressed so 
deeply on her heart. She taught the novices 
to bewail Christ Crucified, and what she 
taught by word she wrought by her acts. 
For often when she was exhorting them in ■ 
secret to these thinga her words would be 
anticipated by a flow of tears. During the 
hours of Sext and None *" she usually feit 
greater compunction so that she migfat be im- 
molated as a victim with Christ. Once it hap- 
pened, as she was praying in her little cell at 
the hour of None, the devil gave her such a 
blow on the check that her eyes became blood- 
shot and her face livid. In order that she 
might feed her mind without intermission on 
the delights of the Crucified, Cläre very often 
pondered over a prayer on the Five Wounds 
of our Lord."* She leamed the Ofßce of the 



50 The Life of ' 

Crosa, as Francis, the lover of the Cross, had 
composed it, and repeated it with as much 
feeltng as he did.'** She girded to her bare 
flesfa, as a secret reminder of the Saviour's 
wounds, a little cord having thirteen knots 
charged with rings. 


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ONCE upon a time the day had arrived of 
the most holy Supper by which the 
Lord loved His own unto the end.* Toward 
evening as the (hour of the] Lord's agony 
drew nigh Cläre, sad and sorrowful, shut her- 
seif up in the seclusion of her cell. And as 
praying she followed the Lord at prayer, her 
souI being sorrowful even unto death,t she 
drew from that sorrow a fervent love and, 
being inebriated by the remembrance of how 
He was taken captive and mocked, she sat upon 
the bed. During all of that night, therefore, 
and of the next day she remained thus wholly 
absorbed and a stranger to herseif so that her 
eyes, ever intent upon one object, were fized 
upon Christ, and she seemed completely in- 
sensible. A certain trusted daughter returned 
to Cläre several times to See whether she 
might need anything, and always found her in 
the same position. But when Friday night had 
come this devoted daughter lit a candle and, 
without spealnng, made a sign to remind the 

•/. e., Maundy Thursday; an allusion to John 13: i. 

tSee Matt. 26:38. 


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52 The UU of 

mother of the precept of St. Francis. For th« 
Saint had commanded that no day should pass 
without her taking something to eat.''* Cläre, 
having with the aid of the Sister retumed as 
tt were, from elsewhere, asked this question: 
"Wbat need ib there of a candle? Is it not 
day?" "Mother." said she, "night has gone and 
the day hath passed and another night is 
come." Cläre made answer: "Blessed be that 
sleep, dearest daughter, for that which I so 
long desired has been granted to me', but be- 
ware lest tbou teil any one of this sleep so 
long as I live." 

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THE Crucified One wbotn she loved repaid 
her who loved Him like (or like, and she 
who was biBamed with such great love toward 
the Mystery o( the Gross was glorified by the 
power of the Gross in signs and mirades. For 
whenever Cläre applied the life-giving sign of-^ 
the Gross to the diseased their malady won- 
drously disappeared. I will touch upon a few 
instances out of many; Blessed Prancis sent 
to the Lady Cläre a certain Friar named 
Stephen who was afflicted with frenzy, that 
she might make the sign of the most holy 
Gross over him. For he knew her great sanc- 
tity and revered the greatness of her power. 
This daughter of obedience, at the command of 
the Fatber, signed Stephen with the sign of 
the Gross and made him sleep for a Httle while 
in the place where she wag wont to pray. 
After a short sleep the Brother rose up sound 
and retumed to the Fatber delivered from bis 

A certain boy of three years named Mattiolo 
from the city of Spoleto had forced a pebble 


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54 The UU Ol 

up hts nose. No one had been able to remave 
it, nor was the boy able to force it out. 
Being in danger of death by reason of his great 
Buffering, he was led to the Lady Cläre, and 
when he was signed by her witb the sign of 
the Gross, the stone being thrust from his nose, 
the boy was at once healed. Another boy from 
Perugia having one eye entirely covered with 
a sore was brought to the holy servant of God, 
who, touching the boy's eye, made the sign of 
the Cross upon it and said : "Take him to Tay 
mother that she may repeat the sign of the 
Cross over him." For be it said that her 
mother, the Lady Ortolana, following her 
plantlet, had entered the Order after her daugh- 
ter, and as a widow served the Lord among 
the virgins in the enclosed garden.'^' No 
sooner had the boy been signed by her 
with the Cross than his eye was freed from 
the lUcer and he saw clearly and distinctly. 
Cläre, therefore, averred that the boy had been 
healed through the merit of her mother, but 
the mother made over all the praise to her 
daughter, asserting that she was unworthy of 
so great a thing. 

One of the Sisters, named Benevenuta, had 
been sufTering for twelve years from an 
uicerous wound under the arm which dis- 
charged bloody matter in five different places. 
Cläre, the virgin of God, touched with pity 
for her, applied her peculiar salve, the health- 



Saint Cläre 


giving sign, and, on being signed with the 
Gross, Bencvenuta was at once perfectiy cured 
of the long-standing ulcer. Another among 
the Sisters, Amata by name,"* had been 
afflicted with dropsy for thirteen months; ex- 
hausted, moreover, by fever, coughing and a 
pain in the side, she was confined to bed. 
Cläre, betng moved to compassion for her, had 
recourse to the aid of her noble remedy. She 
made the sign of the Cross upon Amata in the 
name of her Christ and inunediately restored 
her to the fullness of health. Another hand- 
maid of Christ, a native of Perugia, had for 
two years lost her voice so completely that she 
was scarcely ablc to utter a word. Now when 
on the night of the Assumption of Our Lady 
it was shown to her in a vision that the Lady 
Cläre would heal her, she awaited the day 
with longing. No sooner had tt dawned than 
she hastened to the Mother and asked for the 
sign of the Cross, and being signed she speed- 
ily recovered her voice. A certain Sister, 
named Cristiana, had been suffering from 
deafness in one ear for a long time and had 
used many remedies to relieve this malady, 
but in vain. The Lady Cläre gently signed 
her on the forehead, touched her ear, and there 
and then she regained the power of hearing,'»* 
There was a great multitudc of sick Sisters 
in the monastery'" afflicted with divers ills. 
CJare as usual entered the place '" with her 



^ Tht Ufe o/ 

wonted medicme and, having made the sign of 
the Gross five times, five were immediately 
cured of their infinnities. Prom these facts tt 
is surely clear that the tree of the Gross was 
deeply rooted in the heart of the virgin and 
that, while its fruit refreshed th« soul, tts 
leaves jrielded mediane for the body.*** 


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Smü Cläre 


SEEING that she was the teacher of the 
untutored and, as it were, the mistress 
of the maidens in the palace of the Great King, 
Cläre instructed them [the Siaters] in sudi 
discipline and cherished them with such love 
as cannot be described in words. She taught ' 
them in the first place to shut out all tumult 
from their minds so that they might be intent 
only upon the hidden things of Cod. She 
taught them next not to be affected by the 
love of their lünsfolk and to f orget their home - 
and coimtry in order to please Christ. She 
exhorted them to make no account of the de- 
mands of the perishable body and to subjcct 
the conceits of the flesh to the control of 
reaaon. She showed them how the cunning 
enemy lays hidden snares for pure souls; how 
he tempts saints in one way and worldlinga 
in anotber. Finally, she desired that tbey 
should labor with their hands at certain 
hours,"* so that they might continually be 
enkindied with new fervor to do the will of 
God in the exerctse of prayer and that, leav- 
ing off the torpor of negligence, they might 


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58 The Life of 

replace the coldness of indevotion by the 
warmth of faoly love. In no place was silence 
better kept; nowhere was there greater ob< 
servance and pursuance of all that is becom- 
ing; neitber did continuous talldng bespeak 
a spirit of loquacity; nor did levity of words 
show forth a spirit of frivolity. For the mis- 
tress berseU was sparing in words and ex- 
pressed her mind most concisety with brevity 
of Speech. 


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THROUGH devout preachers Cläre pro- 
vided her daughters with the food of the 
Word of God, f rom wbich she faerself did not de- ~ 
rive IcBS ample fruit. For she was filled with so 
much joy in hearing holy preaching and took 
such delight in the remembrance of her Jesus 
that once, while Brother Philip of Adria '" 
was preaching, there appeared to the virgin 
Cläre a most beautiful boy who overwhelmed 
her with consolations during a great part of 
the sermon. The one who merited to witness 
these things regarding her Mother experienced 
inefFable sweetness from the sigbt of the 
Vision. Thougb Cläre was not versed in let- 
ters, she nevertheless took pleasure in hearing 
a leamed discourse, believing that the kerne) of 
doctrine lies within the shell of the words, and 
thus she enjoyed it more discerningly and lis- 
tened to it with more relish. She knew how 
to derive what was profitable for the soul 
from the sermon of any Speaker. For she 
knew it was not less prudent to pluck flowers 
at times from a wild thorn bush than to eat 



60 The Life of 

fruit of a cultivated tree."* Whm at one tkoe 
the Lord Pope Gregory had forbidden any 
' Priar to go to the mooasteries of the Latzes 
witbout his permission,'" the loving Mother, 
deploring that her daughters would now less 
often receive the food of sound doctrine, said 
with a sigh: "He may as well take all the 
Priars from us now that he hath taken from us 
those who furnished us with the food of the 
soul." And she at once sent back all the Friars 
to the Minister,'*' unwilling to retatn the 
questors who provided bodily sustenance as 
she might not have those who provided 
Spiritual bread. When Pope Gregory heard 
this, he immediately mitigated his prohibition, 
leaving the matter in the hands of the Minister 




NOT onljr did the venerable Abbess love 
the louls of her daughten: she also ' 
cared for their little bodies with the most 
charitable thoughtfulness. For very often in 
the cold of night she herseif covered the sleep- 
ing Sisters. And she desired those whom she 
saw were not able to follow the strict Com- 
munity life to be content with a less rigorous 
observance. If any one was troubled with 
temptation or, as sometimes happens, afSicted 
with sadness, Cläre, secretly calhng the Sister 
to her, consoled her amidst tears. She would 
sometimes throw herseif at the feet of the sor- 
rowing that by motherly caresses she might 
allay their grief. Her daughters, not un- 
grateful for such favors, gave themselves to 
Cläre with entire devotedness. For they loved 
her as a Mother with tender affection; they 
revered her as a tcacher by reason of her 
oflice; they followed her as their guide in the 
path of perfection, and they admired her as 
the Bpouse of God endowed wtth every pre- 
rogative of holiness. 




T^ OR forty years Cläre bad run in the race 
^ of the moat high Poverty, and now, 
after a number of infinnities, she was nearing 
the prire of her supernal vocation.* For, as 
the strength of her body succumbed to the 
rigor of penance in her earlier years, Ulness 
had taken possession of her later ones so thati 
while in good health she had been enriched 
with the ment of work, she might in ill health 
enjoy the merit of suffering. For "power is 
made perfect in infimuty." f How wonder- 
fully power had been made perfect in infirniity 
in her regard is most evident from the fact that 
during twenty-eight years of continual illness 
Ehe uttered no murmur or complaint, bot holy 
conversation and acts of tbanksgiving ever 
came &om her Ups. For, though bome down 
with weight of her infirmities, she seemed to 
be hastening toward her end. it nevertheless 
pleaaed God to delay her death to such time 
as she might be exalted with befitting bonors 
by the Roman Church of which she was in a 
special manner the disciple and the daughter. 

•Ac allusion to I Cor. 9:24 and Phü. 3114, 

tu Cor. 13:9. 



Saint Cläre 63 

For whilc the Sovereign Pontiff together with 
the Cardinais was tarrying at Lyons,*** Cläre 
began to grow worse than usual, so that a 
sword of overwhelming sorrow pierced the 
hearts of her daughters. Presently a certain 
handmaid of Christ, a virgin consecrated to 
God, of the Monastery of S. Paolo of the Order 
of St. Benedict, bad the following vision: it 
seemed that she, along with her Sisters, was 
present at the illness of the Lady Cläre at S. 
Damiano and that the aforesaid Cläre was 
lying on a costly bed. While they were weep- 
ing and awaiting in tears the passing of the 
Blessed Cläre, a beautiful woman appear- 
ing at the head of the little bed addressed 
the soiTowing Sisters: "Wecp not," she said, 
"O daughters, for her who will conquer: for 
Ehe may not die undl the Lord with His dis- 
ciples shall come." And behold, after a short 
time, the Roman Curia arrived at Perugia. 
Having heard that Cläre was becoming worse, 
the Lord of Ostia "* hastened from Perugia 
to visit the spouse of Christ to whom he had 
been a father by reason of bis ofÜce, a pro- 
tector by reason of his solicitude, and ever a 
devoted friend by reason of his most pure 
afTection. He nourished the invalid with the 
Sacrament of the Lord's Body and fed the 
othcr Sisters with words of salutary exhorta- 
tion. Cläre with tears besought so great a 
father that, for the name of Christ, he would 



64 The Life of 

ever be mindful of her souI and the souls of 
the other Ladies. But above all eise she 
bcgged that he would ask the Lord Pope and 
the Cardinais to conßrm the privilege of Pov- 
erty."** Thts the faithful supporter of religion 
not only promised in word but fuUUIed in 
deed."* A year having elapsed, the Lord Pope 
with the Cardinais moved from Perugia to 
Assisi,"* so that the aforesaid viston concem- 
ing the passing of the Saint might be realized. 
For the Supreme PontifT himself, who ts above 
man and below God, represents the person of 
the Lord and to hitn the Lord Cardinais are 
closely attached like disciples in the temple of 
the Church Militant 







to fulfill ita designs in regard to Cläre. 
Christ hastened to call the poor pilgrim to the 
palace of the supernal Kingdom, and she on 
her part already longed and sighed with the 
utmoflt desire to be dissolved "from the body 
of this death," * and to see Christ reigning in 
tbe celestial mansions, whose Poverty on earth 
she, a poor little one, had followed with her 
whole heut. Cläre, whose holy body was ex- 
hausted by her long illness, was overcome by 
new weakness which betokened her approach- 
ing call to the Lord and prepared the way for 
her perfect health. The Lord Pope Innocent, 
of holy memory, together with the Cardinais, 
made haste to visit the handmaid of Christ 
and, since he had found her Hfe to surpass 
that of all the women of our time, he did not 
hesitate to honor her death by the Papal pres- 
ence.'" Having entered the monastery he ap- 
proached the bed and touched his hand to the 
•Rom. 7:24. 



66 The Life of 

Ups of the invalid for her to kiss. She took it 
most gratefully, and begged, with the utmost 
reverence, to be allowed to kiss the Pope's 
foot. The courtly Lord having mounted a 
wooden footstoot coodescendingly extended 
his foot, and Cläre reverently inclining her 
head impressed a kiss upon it both above and 
below. With an angelic countenance, she then 
asked the Sovereign PontiS for remission of 
all her sins. "Would to God," he said, "that 
I had no more need of forgiveness," as he im- 
parted to her the favor of perfect absolution 
and the grace of a most ample blessing. And 
when they had all withdrawn, for on that day 
she received the Sacred Host at the band of 
the Provincial Minister, Cläre lifted up her 
eyes to heaven and, joining her hands toward 
God, said to her Sisters with tears: "Praise 
the Lord, my Uttle daughters, that in thts day 
Christ hath vouchsafed me a favor so great 
that heaven and earth would not suffice to 
repay it. Thia day," she said. "I have merited 
to receive the Most High Himself and to be- 
hold His Vicar." 




THE daugfaters so soon to be left orphans 
stood about the bed of tfaeir Mother and 
thcir hearts were pierced with a sword of bitter 
anguish.* Sleep did not overcome them, nor 
did hunger draw them away; unmindlul of 
rest and food, their only solace was to weep 
night and day, Amongst them the pious vir- 
gin Agnes, overwhelmed by a flood of tears, 
besought her sister not to depart and leave 
her. To whom Cläre replied, "It is pleastng 
to God, dearest sister, that I go hence. 
But, as for thee, cease weeping, for thou ahalt 
come to the Lord soon after myself and before 
I depart from thee the Lord will grant thee a 
great consolation." '" 

•See Luke 2:35. 



The Life of 





FINALLY it seemed that her agony was 
to last for many days, during whicfa the 
Siui and devotion of the people became more 
intense. She was likewise honored daily as 
a very Saint by the frequent Visits of Cardinais 
and prelates. And it is surely marvelous to 
hear that, although she cotild take no food of 
any kind for seventeen days, Cläre was never- 
theless endowed by God with such forütude 
that she strengthened in the Service of Christ 
all who came to her. For when that kindly 
man Brother Rainaldo exhorted her to patience 
in the long mart)rrdom of such great infirm- 
ities, Cläre replied most courageously, "Dear- 
est Brother, ever since I have known the grace 
of our Lord Jesus Christ through His servant 
Francis, no suffering hath troubled me, no pen- 
ance hath been hard, no Ulness arduous." And 
as the Lord dealt favorably wtth her and stood, 
as it were, already at the gate, Cläre desired 
the priests and spiritual Friars to asstst her 
and to read for her the Passion and holy words 



Saint Cläre 69 

of the Lord."» When Brother Juniper, the 
renowned jester of the Lord, who often uttered 
fiery words of God, appeared amongst them, 
Cläre, Glied with new joy, asked htm whether 
he had an/thing new at hand about the 
Lord.*** Jumper, thereupon opening his 
mouth, sent forth like sparks such flaming 
words from the fumace of his bummg heart 
that the virgin of God derived great consola- 
tion from what he said. Finally abe tumed 
toward her weeping daughters and commend- 
ing to them the poverty of the Lord, recalled 
the Divine benefits in words of praise. Tben 
she blessed all who had been kind to her. both 
men and women, and invoked a bcncdiction 
rieh in graces upon all the Ladies of the pocr 
monasteriea present and to come."' As to the 
rest, who can relate it without tears? Two of 
the holy companions of the Blessed Francis 
stood near. One of them, Angelo, though 
weeping himself, comforted the rest in their 
sorrow. The other, Leo, kissed the bed of the 
dying Saint."* Clare's forsaken daughters 
wept at the departure of their beloved Mother 
and with their tears they followed her whom 
they were to see no more. They grieved most 
bitterly, that all their solace was to pass away 
with Cläre and that they were to be left in this 
vale of tears,* without their teacher to com- 
fort them any longer. Shame barely re- 
• See Pi. 83:7. 


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70 The Zj/c of 

strained them from doing violence to their 
bodies, and they feit the pangs oE sorrow more 
keenly because they might not give vent to it 
by exterior grief. For the nile of the clotster 
enjoined silence and the vehemence of their 
sorrow demanded sobs and sighs. Their faces . 
were swoUea with tears and yet the pain of 
their stricken hearts still brought forth new 

But the most holy virgin adverting to her- . 
seif, spoke to her own soul softly : "Go forth," 
she Said, "wtthout fear. For thou hast a good 
guide for thy journey. Go forth," she said,- 
"for He who created thee hath sanctified thee 
and, protecting thee always, loveth thee with a 
love as tender as that of a mother for her son. 
Blessed be Thou, Lord," she said, "who hast 
created me." When one of the Sisters asked 
her to whom she was speaking, Cläre replied : 
"I am speaking to my blessed soul." Nor was 
that glorious guide far distanL For, turning 
to a certain daughter, she asked ; "O daughter, 
doat thou See the King of Glory whom I be- 
hold J" And the band of the Lord came upon 
another one [one of the Sisters],* and with her 
bodily eyes she beheld in her tears a blissful 
Vision. Wounded with a dart of profound sor- 
row, she directed her gaze toward the door of 
the house. And behold I there entcred a multi- 
tude of virgins, clothed in white garments, all of 
* An allusion to JV Kings 3 : 15. 


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Samt Cläre 71 

whom wore golden crowns upon their heads.* 
There walked one amongst them more resplen- 
dent than the rest, from whose crown, which in 
its uppermost part had the appearance of a win- 
dowed thurible, such splendor shone forth 
within the house as to change the night itself 
into dayligbt. She advanced to the bed where 
the spouie of her Son lay, and bending over 
her lovingly embraced her most sweetly. A 
mantle of wondrous beauty was then brought 
forth by the virgins and, all working together 
with emulation they covered the body of Cläre 
and adomed the couch. Thus on the day after 
that of Blessed Laurence that most holy soul 
passed away to be crowned with an everlast- 
ing reward, and, the temple of the fleah being 
dissolved, the spirit soared happily heaven- 
ward.'*» Blessed be this going forth from the 
vale of misery which for Cläre became the 
entrance to a blessed life. And now in lieu 
of her poor fare on this earth she rejoices 
at the table of the heavenly Citizens; for her 
mean^attire she is blessed in the cele&tial king- 
dom adorned with a robe of etemal glory. 

* See Apoe. 7 ; 9. 



The Ufe of 





THE news of thc passing of the Virgin 
caused a sudden constemation among 
the popuIation of thc cntire city: men and 
women flocked to the place and the people 
came in such crowds that the city seemed to be 
left desolate. All prodaimed Cläre a Saint 
and one dear to God, and amid words of praise 
not a few burst into tears. The Podesti'** 
hastened with a troop of knights and a large 
number of armed men and they kept dose 
watch during that evening and the whole of 
the night, lest perhaps they tnight suffer the 
loss of the precious treasure that tay within.'" 
The next day the whole Roman Curia was in 
a State of commotion. The Vicar of Christ 
with the Cardinais came to the place, and the 
whole city directed its Steps toward S. 
Damiano. When the time came to commence 
the Divine service and the Friars were begin- 
ning the OfBce of the Dead, the Lord Pope, 
intemipting, said that the Office of Virgins 
and not the OHice of the Dead ought to be 




iri.i.i_ rk_ f^iniar^r ar c Phiün ahnwintf fh« Chanel 


Saint Cläre 73 

recited, so that it seemed as if he would fain 
canonize Cläre before her body had been given 
buriaL But that most eminent man, the Lord 
of Ostia,'" replying that they otight to do 
what was more customary in such cases, Mass 
for the Dead was celebrated. Then, at the in- 
stante of the Sovereign PontüF, in the presence 
of the Cardlnals and of the Freistes, the 
Bishop of Ostia, taking the subject-nutter of 
his discourse from the Vanity of Vamties.* 
eulogized in a splendid sermon her who had 
despised vanity so nobly. Afterward the Car- 
dinal Prietts with devout condescension, 
Standing around the sacred corpse, brought to 
a close the usual rites over the body of the 
virgin. Finally, because they deemed it 
neither safe nor becoming that so precious a 
pledge be Icft at such a distance from the 
Citizens, the corpse was raised aloft amidst 
hymns and praisea and the shouting of the 
~ crowds and solemn jubilation, and bome with 
all pomp to the Church of S. Giorgio. For this 
was the place where the body of the holy 
Father Francis had first been laid, so that he 
who while living had prepared for Cläre the 
way of life, by a sort of presage, should also 
when dead prcpare a place for her."' And 
thereafter people camc in great crowds to the 
tomb of the virgin, blessing God and 6a}ring, 
"Truly she was a Saint She now reigneth 
• See Ecci. i : a. 



74 The Ufe of 

gloriously with tbe Angela, who on earth hath 
received such honor frotn tnen. Intercede for 
US with Christ, O first fruit of the Poor Ladies, 
thou who hast led innumerable souls to pen- 
ance and to lifel" 

A few days afterward "* Agnes, being called 
to the nuptials of the Lamb, followed her 
siiter to etemal. delights where both these 
daughters of Sion, üsters by nature, in grace 
and in glory, praise God unceasingly. And 
Agnes indeed received before she died that 
consolation wMch Cläre had promised her. 
For as, under the guidance of her sister, she 
had passed over from the world to the Cross, 
so, while Cläre was resplendent with signs 
and mirades, Agnes took flight after her to 
God from this passing world. Through the 
grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, who with the 
Father and the Holy Ghost liveth and reigneth 
world without end. Amen. 


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THOSE are the wonderful signs of the 
Saints, those the evtdences of mirades 
which consist in holiness of life and fulness 
of good works, "John indeed did no wgn," * 
and yet those who did signs were not holier 
than John. And hence the renown of her most 
perfect life should sufHce as a witness to the 
sanctity of the holy virgin Cläre, if it were 
not that partly the tepidity and partly the 
devotion of the people at times demanded 
otherwise. Resplendent, therefore, with merits 
while she lived, and now absorbed in the 
abyss of perpetual brightness, Cläre is, never- 
theless, still wonderfully heralded to the ends 
of the earth by the splendor of her mirades. 
The strict truth, judicially attested, compels 
me to set down several, yet their great num- 
ber constrains me to omit a great many. 

•See John 10:41- 



The Life of 


ACERTAIN bojr of Perugia named Gia- 
cobtno did not seem to be ill so much 
as to be obsessed by a most evil demon. For 
at one time throwing himself wildly into the 
fire, again falling violently to the ground, 
again chewing stones until bis teeth were 
broken, he wounded hia head piteously and 
covered his body with blood. His mouth was 
distorted and his tongue protruded, while he 
twisted his body with such ease that he could 
put his leg around his neck. Twice a day this 
fury seized the boy, and two persona were not 
able to prevent him (rom removing his 
clothes. The aid of skilfiU physicians was 
employed, but no one was found who knew 
how to assist him. Hia father, Guidolotto by 
name, finding no remedy among men for so 
great a misfortune, had recourse to the merits 
of St. Cläre. "O most holy virgin," he aaid; 
"O Cläre, venerated by the whole world, to 
thee I dedicate this wretcbed child and from 
thee I implore his eure with all eamestness." 
Füll of conßdence, he hastened to her sepul- 
cfare and, lifting the boy, placed him on the 


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Saint Cläre 77 

tomb of the virgin, whereupon he at once ob- 
tained of her the favor he had asked. Por 
the boy was forthwith freed front that m- 
firnüty and was never after troubled with a 
like attack. 



The Life 0/ 


ALESSANDRINA of Fratta,'" in the 
diocese - of Perugia, was troubied 
with a most wicked demon, This demon had 
so far gained power over her that he made 
her fly like a little bird about a high rock that 
projected over the bank of a river. He also 
caused her to let herseif down by a very slen- 
der branch of a tree overhanging the river 
Tiber, and kept her there as if in play. And 
as she had likewise, by reason of her stns, en- 
tirely lost the use of her left side and had a 
withered hand, she often made trial of rem- 
edies but without reltef. Alessandrina came 
to the tomb of the glorious virgin Cläre with 
a contrite heart, and, having invoked her 
merits. she received through this single 
remedy a complete eure for her threefold mis- 
fortune. For her withered hand was made 
whole; her side was healed, and she was de- 
livered front the demon who had possessed 
her. Another woman of the same place was 
at the same time freed from the devil and 
from much angxiish before the tomb of the 




FRENZY had taken possession of a certain 
French youth who was attached to the 
Curia,"* and had deprived him of Bpeech and 
caused his body to be fearfully restlets. No 
ooe was able to hold him, but he would bruite 
himself with great vioUnce in the hands of 
those who sought to restrain him. He wai 
tied down on a hier with strong ropes and was 
carried by his countrymen against his will to 
the Church of St. Cläre, and placed before her 
tomb; and forthwith he was freed in a most 
wonderful manner through the faith of those 
who had brought him. 


VALENTINO of Spello '" was so afBicted 
with epilepsy that he would fall to the 
ground six times a day wherever he happened 
to be. Crippled, likewise, by a contraction in 
his leg he was tmable to walk. He was led 
upon an ass to the sepulchre of St. Cläre, 
where he lay for two days and three nights. 
On the third day, without any one touching 
lüm, bis leg was heard to snap loudly and he 
was thereupon healed of both infirmities. 



The Uft of 


AMAN named Giacobello, tbe son of a 
woman from Spoleto, had been twelve 
years blind and was wont to follow a guide, 
nor could he walk anywhere alone with- 
out falllng over the precipice. For once having 
been left by bis guide for a little while he 
feil over a precipice and sustained a frac- 
ture of the arm and a wound in the head. 
One night, while he lay asleep near the bridg« 
at Nami,*" a certatn lady appeared to him in 
his sieep saying to him: "Giacobello, why dost 
thou not come to me at Assisi and thou shalt be 
cured?" Rising in the morning, he related 
the Vision in trembling to two othcr blind 
men. They answeredhim: "We have recentiy 
heard that a lady died in the city of Assisi 
whose sepulchre the band of the Lord is said 
to honor with the gift of healing and with 
many wonders." Having heard this, Giacobello 
made haste and set out promptly, and while 
passing the night at Spoleto he again beheld 
the same vision. WhoUy tntent on receiving 
his ügbt, he girded himself to the joumey 
and pressed on more eagerly. But, on arrlv- 


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Saint Cime 61 

ing at Assisi, he found such crowds of people 
gathered before the sepulcbre of the virgtn 
that he could in oowiie get to the tomb. He 
placed a stone under bis head and with great 
faith. although gorrowing that he could not 
get inside, he feil a&leep at the entrance. And 
behold 1 the voice spoke to him a third time: 
"The Lord will aid thee, Giacobello, if only 
thou canst enter." Awakening, therefore, and 
crying out, he tearfully besought the crowd and 
pleaded that for the love of God they would be 
pleaied to make way for him. When the 
crowd had given place. Giacobello removed his 
shoes and took off his outer garments and 
tted the thongs of bis shoes around his neck, 
and. humbly approaching the tomb in this 
wise. he feil into a light slumber. "Arise, 
arise," the Blessed Cläre said to him, "for 
thou hast been cured." Rising up at once, his 
blindness had dtsappeared and all dimness 
of sight had left him ; he saw dearly. through 
Cläre, the cleamess of the light and magnified 
God in words of praise, inviting all men to 
bless Him for a work of such greatness."* 



Tha Life of 


ACERTAIN Perugian named Buon Gio- 
vanni had gone out with his fellow- 
citizcns against the men of Foligno."" Soon 
after the conflict had begun, his hand was 
broken, being complctely crushed by the blow 
of a stone. He spent much money on physi- 
cians in the hope of a eure, but was not able 
to find any help through medicine, so that his 
hand remained useless and he was unable to 
do any work whatever. Grieving, therefore, 
at having to bear the bürden of a right band 
that could hardly be called his own, he often 
wished to have it cut off. Hearing, howcver, 
of the things which the Lord was pleased to 
perfonn through His servant Cläre, he took a 
vow and bastened to the scpulchre of the vir- 
gin. There, having made an offering of a 
waxen image of a hand,*'* he lay down upon 
the tomb of St. Cläre. Presently, before he 
left the church, his band was perfectiy 




ONE Petriolo of the town of Bettona"* 
had been exhausted with Ulness for 
three years, and was so wasted by reason of 
bis long infinnity that be seemed to be almost 
completely dried up. His back was, moreover, 
so contracted from the acuteness of his malady 
that he was crooked and bent toward the 
ground, and he could hardly move along even 
with the aid of a stick. His father had rc- 
course to the skiU of many doctors, especially 
of those who were learned in healing diseases 
o£ the bones; he was prepared to spend his 
entire fortune for the restoration of his boy 
to health. But when he was told by every- 
one that there were no means by which such 
a malady might be cured, he tumed to the 
prayers of the new Saint of whose wonders 
he had heard. The hoy was carried to the 
spot where the precious remains of the virgin 
rcpose, and he had not been lying long before 
the tomb when he obtained the grace of perfect 
health. He arose at once erect and sound, 
Walking and leaping and gIorif)ring'God, and 
be invited the crowds of people to sing tbe 
praises of St. Cläre. 



84 The UU of 

There was a boy of ten years in the village 
of San Quirico, in the diocese of Assisi, wbo 
faad been lame from his mother's womb. HU 
ihtn bones were diseased and bis feet were 
tumed crosswise so that he walked crookedly 
and wben he feil he was scarcely able to rise 
again. His mother had on several occasions 
vowed him to St. Francis, but he had not ex- 
perienced any improvement. On hearing that 
the blessed Cläre was-shining forth with new 
miracles, the mother carried the boy to her 
sepulchre. After some days, the bones of his 
shins being healed, his body was brought back 
to its natural straightness, and that which St. 
Francis, though implored by many prayers, had 
not granted, his disciple Cläre conceded 
through the Divine power. 

A Citizen of Gubbio named Giacomo di 
Franco faad a boy five years old who, because 
of weakness in his feet, had never walked and 
was incapable of doing so. He, therefore, be- 
wailed his son as a defomiity in his family 
and a reproach to his name. The boy slept od 
the ground and crawled in the ashes trying at 
times to get OD a bench, but not being able to 
rise. For nattire, which had given him the de- 
sire to walk, had refused him the itrengtfa. 
His parents commended the boy to the merits 
of St. Cläre and, that their prayers might be 
heard, promised that if he should be restored 



Samt Cläre 85 

to health by her, he would be calied the "ser- 
vant of St. Cläre." The vow had icarce been 
made wheo the vtrgin of Christ, healing her 
servant, obtained for the boy offered to her the 
free use of his limbs. Thereupon bis parents 
hastened with their son to the tomb of the 
Virgin and presented the boy, all leaping and 
gleeful, to the Lord. 

A certain woman named Plenaria from the 
town of Bevagna*^* had been suffering for a 
long time from a contraction in her aide, ao 
that she was not able to walk except by the 
help of a stick. Yet even with the aid of the 
stick she was not able to walk erect ; it merely 
helped her to drag along somehow with falter- 
ing Steps. On a certain Friday she had her- 
seif brought to the tomb of St. Cläre. There, 
praying with great fervor, she obtained speedily 
what she had asked believingly. For on the 
foUowing Saturday she who had been carried 
from her house by others, retumed thither on 
her own feet, having been perfectly restored to 



The Life of 


ACERTAIN girl of Perugia had long suf- 
fcred great pain from tumors of the 
throat, known in the vulgär tongue as scrof- 
ula."* In fact they bad counted twenty swell- 
ings on the throat o£ the girl, and the throat 
itself seemed even larger than her head. Her 
mother often led the girl to the tomb of St. 
Cläre where, with all devotion she implored the 
aid of that Saint. Once, after the girl had lain 
the whole night before the sepulchre, she feil 
into a sweat, the swellings began to soften, and 
little by little to pass away. In the course of I 
tinie they so far disappeared, tbrough the 
merits of St. Cläre, that not a trace of them re- 

While the virgin Cläre was still in the flesh, 
one of the Sisters, Andrea by namei had a like 
malady in her throat. It is surely stränge that 
a soul so cold lay hidden in the midst of gli 
ing stones and was playing the part of a fi 
ish virgin among the wise ones.* For 
night, in order to force the swelling throi 
• See Matt. 25 : i //. 



Saint Cläre 87 

her mouth, this Sister squeezed her throat to 
the point of suffocation, secking by her own 
strength to outdo the Dtvine will. Cläre at 
once knew of this occurrence through the 
Spirit. "Run," she said to one of the Sisters, 
"run qutckly downstairs ; take a warm egg and 
bring it to Sister Andrea of Ferrara to suck, 
and come back with her to me." The Sister 
made haste and found the aforesaid Andrea un- 
able to speak and almost choking aa a result 
of her own act. She relieved her as best she 
could, and then brought her to the mother, 
The servant of God said to her: "Poor wretch, 
confess to the Lord thy thoughts. which are 
well known to me. Behold the Lord Jesus ' 
Christ will heal what thou wished to heal thy- 
self. But change thy Hfe for the better, for 
thou shalt suffer another Infirmity from which 
thou shalt not rise." At these words the Sister 
was moved by the spirit of compunction and 
improved her manner of life most notably. 
Cured of scrofula, she passed away before long 
from another illness. 

The countryside was wont to be disturbed 
by the ruthless ferocity of cruel wolves which 
attacked cven men and often fcd upon human 
flesh. There was a certain woman named 
Bona of Monte Galliano, in the dlocese of 
Assisi, who had two sons. She had scarcely 
done weeping for one of them whom the 



88 The Ute of 

wolves had carried off, when behold they has- 
tened after the other one with the same rapac- 
ity. For while the mother was indoors employed 
in 6ome household work a wolf laid hold of the 
boy who was Walking outside, and seizing him 
by the neck made off quickly to the wood with 
bis prey. Some men who were in the vine- 
yards, hearing the boy's screams, calied out 
to the mother, saying, "See whether thy son 
be with thee, for we have just heard aome 
Strange wailings." The mother. realizing that 
her soD had been snatched by a wolf, lifted 
her voice to heaven and, fiUing the air with 
her cries, invoked the virgin Cläre, thus: "O 
holy and glorious Cläre, give me back my poor 
boy; give back my little son to his unhappy 
mother. For if thou dost not, I shall drown my- 
self." The neighbors on running after the 
wolf found the Infant in the wood, wfaere he 
had been left by the beast, and a dog was 
beside the boy licking his wounds. The fero- 
dous wolf had first fastened bis fangs in the 
boy's neck, and had then caught hold o{ his 
side so that he might carry bis prey off more 
easily, and had left no slight marks of the at- 
tack in both places. The woman's prayer hav- 
ing been heard, she hastened together with her 
neighbors to her helper, showing the different 
wounds o£ the boy to all who wished to see 
them, and retumtng abundant thanks to God 
and to St. Cläre. 



Saint Cläre 89 

A little girl from the town of Cannara "' 
was sitting in a iield in broad daylight and an- 
other woRian had laid her head in the girl'i 
lap."* Behold 1 a man-eating woU in quest of 
prey, quickly approached with furtive Step. 
The girl saw it, but, believing it to be a dog, 
had no fear, and «s she resumed combing the 
hair, the savage beast feil upon her, seizing her 
head in its huge fangs [aod carried off hit 
prey to the woods. The awe^triclcen woman 
rose instantly and, mindful of St. Cläre, be- 
gan to cry out, aaying]:"^ "Help, St. Cläre, 
helpl To thee I now commend this girl." 
And, wonderful to relate, she who was being 
bome off in the jaws of the wolf, inveighed 
against the beast, saying: "Thief, wilt thou 
dare carry me further, after I have been com- 
mended to such a virgin?" Confounded by 
this rebuke, the wolf instantly set the girl 
gently on the ground, and then, like a thief 
caught in the act, made off in all haste. 

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The Life of 


WHEN the account of these mirsdes was 
being noiaed abroad and the virtues 
of the virgin were becoming more widely 
known day by day, so that the world itself was 
already looking forward with desire to the 
canonization of so great a virgin, the chair of 
Peter was occupied by the most dement 
Prince, the Lord Alexander IV, a man who 
was the friend of everything holy, tbe protec- 
tor of Religious and the firm supporter of Re- 
ligious Orders. The aforesaid Pontiff, moved 
by the number of such wonders, as though it 
were something unusual, began, together with 
the Cardinals, to treat of her canonization. 
Solemn and discreet persons were commis- 
sioned to examine into her mirades and the 
wonders of her life were also made the sub< 
ject of discussion.'^* It was found that Cläre 
while living was a most shining example of 
every virtue; it was found, too, that, after her 
death, she was worthy of admiration for real 
and attested mirades. On the day appointed 
when the Cardinals had convened and Arch- 
bishops and Bishops had assembied, together 



Saint Cläre 91 

with the clergy and leligious, a great number 
of leamed and eminent men being also pres- 
ent, the Supreme PontiEF laid this important 
matter betöre them and asked the opinion of 
the prelates. AU assented promptly and 
showed thetn&elves favorably disposed, saying 
that Cläre, whom God had glorified on high, 
ought also to be glorified on earth. 

Two years having elapsed nnce her death 
and the day of her passing to the Lord being 
at band, the happy Alexander to whom this 
grace had been reserved by the Lord, having 
convoked a multitude of prelates and all the 
clergy, reverently and with the utmost pomp 
inscribed Cläre in the catsJogue of the Saints. 
and ordained that her feast be solemnly kept 
throughout the Church,"* he, himself, with bis 
whole court having first celebrated it with the 
greatest solcmnity. 

These things took place in the principal 
church at Anagni in the year of our Lord's In- 
carnation MCCLV, the first year of the pontifi- 
cate of the Lord Alexander; '*" to the praise 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, who with the Father 
and the Holy Ghost liveth and reigneth world 
without end. Amen. 





1U5 - 1800. 








IN THE absence of any English veraion of 
the Rule of St. Cläre which contomu to 
the original document, it seemed worth while 
to append one to the present transIatioD of 
her contemporary biograpby. The early his- 
tory of this Ruie is not without its ioterest, 
but it is thomy in the extreme and could be 
made intelligible within no narrow linütt.'** 
Suffice it to say that during the lifetime of 
St. Cläre — and our concem here is with that 
period only— one may distinguish several 
Gtages in the evolution of her Rule. To begin 
with, St. Francis gave a short formula vite 
to St. Cläre and her early companions at S. 
Damiano in or about 1212.'" That these Dam- 
ianites were still without any forma) or written 
Rule when the Camaldolesc nuns of Vallegloria 
near Spello embraced their mode of life several 
yeara later, is clear from documents still ex- 
tant in the archive of the Cläres at Vallegloria. 
Whtle St. Francis was in the Orient (1219- 
1220), Cardinal Ugolino, afterward Gregory 
IX, then Bishop of Ostia and Protector of the 
Order, drew up a written Rule for the Cläres, 




96 Appendix l 

taking as a basis the Rute of St. Benedict '** 
and adding some particular constitutions to 
this Rul«, which was duly confirmed by Hono- 
rius III,"' and adopted by the Cläres at Monti- 
cello near Florence, and etsewhere. But there 
is no good reason to believe that it was ever 
put into practice at S. Damiano or that Cläre 
and her compani<ms there ever deviated troia 
the primitive prescriptions of St. Francis. 
Moreover, St. Cläre obtained from Gregory IX 
in 1228 the celebrated Privilegium Paapertatä 
which is reproduced elsewhere in this vol- 
ume '** and which ntay be regarded in some 
sort as a corrective of his Rule of 1219. This 
quasi-Benedictine Rule of 1219 was, however, 
confirmed by Gregory in 1239,"* as well aa by 
his successor, Innocent IV, six years later.*" 
Pinally, 9 August, 1253, the latter Pontiff, at 
the instance of Cardinal Rainaldo, theo Btshop 
of Ostia and Protector of the Order, solemnly 
approved, '•• to the exclusion of all former 
ones, a new and truly Franciscan Rule which 
the Cardinal had drawn up on 16 September, 
1252, for the Poor Ladies.*** This definitive 
Rule of St. Cläre is the one here translated. 
It is largely an adaptation, mulaHs muUmJis, td 
the Rule of the Friars Minor approved in 1223, 
y . and Cardinal Rainaldo, afterward Alexander 

! li ! IV, may be regarded as its principal author. 

But that St Cläre herseif had a hand in its cmn- 
pilation is dear from thoee passages in which. 


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Ruk of Sl Cläre 97 

as in Chapter VI, the impersonal style of the 
legislator is abandoned. and as a whole it was 
assuredly drawn up under her auspices. In any 
event historical research has now made it clear 
that St. FVancis had no share whatever in its 
compoütion.'** Neither did he write «ny Rule 
for St Cläre in 1224 as some biographers have 
erroneously asserted. Aside (rem the short 
formula written for the first nuns at S. 
Damiano at the beginning of their religious 
Ufe, St. Francis gave no Rule of any kind to 
St. Cläre or her spiritual daughters. It is per- 
haps somewhat hard for cur present-day 
Cläres to bring themselvcs to believe this. But 
the fact is beyond gainsay. 

The original Bull of Innocent IV confirming 
this definitive Rule of St. Cläre was found at 
the Monastery of S. Chiara at Assisi in 1893 
under circumstances already described,'** and 
it is now ensconsed in a reUquary in the nuns' 
choir there. I have elsewhere described this 
precious heirloom at some length.'" Here it 
may be worth mention that on the Upper mar- 
gin of the faded and crumpled parchment it is 
possible af ter an effort to decipher these words : 
"Ad instar fiat. S." and below them these 
others: "£x causis manifatit micU et protectori 
man [asierii?] fiat ad iiKlar." According to the 
Abbot Cozza-Luzzi, both these inscriptions 
are in the handwriting of Innocent IV,*»' 
who wished to hurry the Bull to the dying 


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Appendix l 

Saint. Alter it reached her, Cläre intoned her 
Nunc dimUtia; she died the next day. On the 
reverse of the parchment a contemporary hand 
has tnade tbis touching note: "Hanc (?) beala 
Clara teSgit et ohtcalata etl pro devoliom pluribu 
(s et?) plaribas vicibut," and it is said that when 
Cläre expired this Bull was dasped in her 

It is from this seifsame Bull — of which I 
obtained a photograph at S. Chiara — that the 
following translation is made. The number* 
ing of the chapters and their headings, which 
are not found in the original, are taken from 
the Quaracchi editton of the Latin text."* 
Apart from the interest attaching to it in con- 
nexion with the subject of the present volume, 
the Rule of St. Cläre is most valuable in itself 
as a specimen of medieval monastic legislation, 
and those who know anything about religious 
communities in cur very different days cannot 
fait to recognize the wisdom and far-sightedness 
thai pervade this old-fashioned document. 





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Rult of St. Ciart 





THE form of life ol the Order of the Poor 
Sisters, which the Blessed Francis 
founded is this: to observe the holy Gospel 
of our Lord Jesus Christ by Hvtng in obedj- 
ence, with poverty and in chastity. Cläre, un- 
worthy handmaid of Christ and little flower of 
the most blessed Father Francis, promises 
obedience and reverence to the Lord Pope 
Innocent and his successors canonically elected 
and to the Roman Church. And as, in the be- 
ginning of her conversion, she with her Sistera 
promised obedience to the Blessed Francis, so 
does she promiEC to observe the same invio- 
lably to his successors. And the other Sisters 
are bound always to obey the successors of 
the Blessed Francis and of Sister Cläre and 
the other Abbesses canonically elected who 
shall succeed her. 



Appendix I 


IP ANY one, moved by Divine Inspiration, 
should come to us wishing to embrace tbis 
life, the Abbess is bound to ask the consent 
of all the Sisters, and if the greater part give 
their consent, she may receive her, having ob- 
tained leave of our Lord Cardinal Protector. 
And if it shall seem fitting to receive her, let 
the Abbess examine her carefuUy or have her 
exaniined as to the Catholic falth and the Sac- 
raments of the Church; and if she believe all 
these things and is witling to confess tbem 
(aithfully and to observe them steadfastly to 
the end, and if she have no husband or, having 
one, if he have already entered Religion with 
the authority of the Bishop of the diocese and 
have made a vow of continence, and if there 
be no impediment to the observance of this 
life by reason of her advanced age or ill-health 
or fatuity, let the tenor of cur life be dearly 
ez[>lained to her. If she be found worthy, let 
the virords of the holy Gospel be said to her 
that she go and seil all that she has and en- 
deavor to distribute it to the poor,^** but if she 
cannot do this her good will is suSicient. Let 


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Rak of St. Cläre 101 

the Abbess and her Sisters take care not to be 
anxious about her worldly goods, so that she 
may freely do with her goods whatsoever the 
Lord may insptre her. If, however, tbere be 
need of advice, let them send her to some 
prudent and God-fearing men by whose coun- 
sel let her goods be distributed to the poor. 

Afterward, her hair having been cut off 

round and her secular dress laid aside, let them 

allow her three tunics and a mantle. Thence- 

forth it shall not be permitted her to go out- 

side the monastery save for some useful, rea- 

sonable, manifest and probable cause. When 

the year of probation Is over, she shall bc re- 

I ceived to obedience, promising to observe per- 

petually our life and form of poverty. No one 

shall be veiled during the time of probation. 

I The Sisters may also have little mantles for 

j the convenience and propriety of their Service 

1 and labor, But let the Abbess provide them 

< discreetly with garments according to the 

A qualtties of persona and places and times and 

I cold climates as necessity may seem to requtre. 

' The young girls who are received into the 

monastery before they have reached the proper 

age, shall have their hair cut off round and, 

their secular dress bcing laid aside, they shall 

I be clothed in religious garb of such sort as may 

seem beßtting to the Abbess. But when they 

Ihave reached the proper age they shall make 
their profession clothed after the manner of 







102 Appendix 1 

the others. And both for tbese and for the 
other novices the Abbess shall be caref ul to pro- 
vide a tnistress from among all tbose who are 
the more prudent who shall diligently instruct 
them in holy living and becoming behavier ac- 
cording to the form of our profesüon. The 
same form shall be followed in the examination 
and reception of the Sisters who serve outside 
the monastery ; these Sisters may wear shoes. . 
No one may live with us in the monastery un- 
less she be received according to the form of 
our profession. And for the love of the most 
holy and most sweet Child Jesus wrapped in 
poor Uttle swaddling clothes and laid in a 
manger and of His most holy Mother, I ad- 
monish, beseech and entreat my Sisters that 
they be always clothed in poor garments. 


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RuU of Su Cläre 




THE Sisters wfao know bow to read shall 
recite the Divine OfBce after the custom 
of the Friars Minor; wherefore they may bave 
breviaries,"^ reading it [the Office] without 
singing. And those wbo are unable at times, 
owing to a reasonable cause, to recite their 
hours by reading them may say the Pater 
Nosters like the other Sister&'*' Those wbo 
do not know how to read shall say twenty-four 
Pater Nosters for Matins, ßve for Lauds, seven 
for each of the hours — Prime, Terce, Sext and 
Nene — twelve for Vesper« and seven for 
Compline. They shall also say seven Pater 
Nosters for the dead at Vespers and twelve at 
Matins, since the Sisters wbo are able to read 
are bound to recite the Office of the Dead. 
When any Sister of our monastery departs this 
life they shall say fifty Pater Nosters. 

The Sisters sball fast at all times. They 
may, however, take two repasts at Christmas 
on whatsoever day it may fall, The Abbess 
may charitably dispense as regards the young, 
the weak and those who serve outside the mon- 



104- Appendix 1 

astery, as she may deem wise. But in time of 
evident need the Sistera are not bound to 
bodily fasting. The Sisters, with the leave of 
the Abbess, shall confess at teast twelve titnes 
in the year and at such timea they should be 
carefui not to introduce any words whicb do 
not regard Confession and the salvation of 
souls. They shall cominunicate seven times, 
namely. on the Nativity of the Lord, on Thurs- 
day of Holy Week, on Easter Sunday, on Whit 
Sunday, on the Assumption of the Blessed 
Virgin, on the feast of St. Francis and on the 
feast of All Saints. The chaplain may enter 
within {the monasteryj to communicate either 
the Sisters who are in good health or those 
who are iU. 



Buk oi Su Cläre 





IN THE election of tbe Abbess tbe Sisters 
are obliged to observe the canonical form. 
They tfaall malce hast« to have [present] tbe 
Hinister General or a Provincial of the Order 
of Friars Minor who with the Word of God 
may dispose them to perfect concord and to 
seek only the common good in the election. 
No one shall be elected who is not professed; 
and if one should be elected or otherwise 
chosen who is not professed let the Sisters not 
ohey her unless she first professes the form 
of our Poverty. When she dies, the election 
of another Abbess shall take place. If at any 
time it shall seem to all the Sisters that the 
aforesaid [Abbess] does not suffice for their 
Service and their common good, the aforesaid 
Sisters are bound as soon as they can to elect 
another as Abbess and Mother for themselves 
' according to the form above mentioned. Let 
her who is elected consider of what sort the 
bürden is ehe has taken upon her and to Whom 
an account of the flock committed to her is to 



106 Appendix I 

be rendered. Let her strive to precede tfae 
otbers in virtu« and holy behavior rather than 
by her Office, so that the Sisters, animated by 
her example, may obey her more through love 
than through fear. Let her be free from par- 
ticular friendships, lest by showing too much 
affection for one she engender scandal among 
all. Let her console the sorrowful and be the 
last refuge of the troubled, lest the weak, if 
they find not comfort at her bands, be over- 
come by the sadness of despair. Let her con- 
form to the common Ufe in all things, more 
especially in the church, dormitory, refectory, 
infirmary, and in dothlng; and her Vlcar shall 
also be obliged to do likewise. At least once a 
week the Abbess is botmd to assemble her 
Sisters at Chapter, where she, as well as the 
Sisters, ought humbly to confess their ordinary 
and public faults and negligences. And the 
Abbess should there confer with all her Sisters 
as to those thtngs that have to do with the wel- 
fare and good name of the monastery, for the 
Lord often reveals to the least that which is 
best. Let no grave debt be made save with 
the consent of all the Sisters and for a mani- 
fest necessity and then through a procurator. 
Let the Abbess with her Sisters be careful not 
to receive any deposit in their monastery, be- 
cause disturbance and scandals often arise 
from so doing. In order to preserve the bond 
of mutual love and peace, all the officials of the 


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Rule cf St. Cläre 


monastery shall be elected by the common con- 
sent of all the Sisters. And in like manner at 
least eight Sisters shall be elected from among 
the more prudent, of whom the Abbess is 
bound alwaya to take counsel as to those things 
which OUT form of lifo requires. Moreover, the 
Sisters may and they ought sometimes, if it 
shall be useful and expedient to them, to re- 
move the officials and the discreets and to 
elect others in th«r place. 



Appendix I 


THE Ststers shall keep silence from the 
hour of CompUne until Terce, except 
those who serve outside the monastery. They 
shall also keep silence continually in the 
chlirch, dormitory and refectory. In the in- 
firmary, however, they may always speak dia- 
creetly for the recreation and assistance of 
those who are ilL Moreover, they may always 
and bi all places say what is needful in a low 
voice. The Sisters are not allowed to speak 
in the parlor or at the grille without the leave 
of the Abbess or her Vicar. Those who have 
leave to speak in the parlor may not do so save 
in the presence and hearing of two Sisters. 
But let none presume to go to the grille wiless 
there be present at least three Sisters ap- 
pointed by the Abbess or her Vicar from 
among the eight discreets chosen by all the 
Sisters for the Council of the Abbess. The 
Abbess and her Vicar are themselves bound to 
observe thts manner of speaking. And let this 
be done very rarely at the grille; at the door 
let it never occur. Inside the grille a curtain 
must be placed. and it must never be removed 


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Ruk o/ SL Cläre 


save when the Word of God is being spoken 
or when a Sister speaks to somebody. It must 
also have a wooden door well fastened with 
two distinct iron locks, bolts and bars, and 
tbese shall be locked, particularly at night, with 
two keys, of wbich the Abbess shall keep one 
and the Sacristan the other. And the grille 
■hall be kept always locked except when the 
Divine OfBce is being recited and for the 
reasons mentioned above. No Sister may in 
any way speak to any person at the grille be- 
töre sunrise or after sunset. In the parlor a 
curtain shall always remain within and it may 
not be removcd. No one may epeak in the 
parlor during the Lent of St. Martin or during 
the greater Lent, save to the priest for con- 
fession or for some other evident necessity. 
whicfa must be left to the discretion of ths 
Abbess or her Vicar. 

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Appendix I 





AFTER the Heavenly Father Most High 
deigned to enlighten my heart by Hts 
grace to do penance according to the example 
and teaching of our most blessed Father St. 
Francis, I, together with my Sisters, voluii> 
tarily promised him obedience a little whtle 
after his conversion. Seeing that we feared 
no poverty, toü, sorrow, humiliation or con- 
tempt from the world, nay, rather that we held 
them in great delight, the Blessed Father 
wrote US a form of life as follows : "Since by 
Divine Inspiration you have made yourselves 
daughters and handmaids of the Most High 
Sovereign King, the Heavenly Father, and 
have espoused yourselves to the Holy Ghost, 
electing to live according to the perfection of 
the holy Gospel, I will and I promise for my- 
self and my Friars always to have for you as 
for them a special solicitude." This promise 
he faitbfully kept so long as he lived and he 
wished it always to be kept by the Friars. 
And in order that neither we nor those who 




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Ruk o/ Sl ClüTe 1 1 1 

were to come after us might ever fall away 
from Uie htghest poverty with which we had 
begun, he again wrote us shortly before hts 
death his last wish, saying: "I, little Brother 
Francis, wish to follow the life and poverty of 
Jesus Christ, our Lord Most High, and of His 
Diost holy Mother and to persevere therein untU 
the end. And I beseecb you all, my Ladies, and 
counsel you always to live in this highest life 
and poverty. And watch yoursclves well, lest 
through the teaching or advice of anybody you 
ever depart from it in anywise." And as I my- 
self together «rith my Sisters have ever been 
carefui to observe the holy poverty which we 
promised to the Lord God and to the Blessed 
Francis, so likewise the Abbesses who shall 
succeed me in office and all the Sisters are in* 
violably bound to observe it to the end, 
namely, by not receiving or having any pos- 
session or propriety either of themselves or 
through any intermediary person or even any- 
thing that mtght reasonably be calied pro- 
priety, except so much ground as necessity re- 
quires for the decency and seclusion of the 
monastery, and this ground may not be tilled 
save as a garden for the wants of the Sisters. 



Appendix I 


LET the Sisters, to whom the Lord has given 
' the grace of working, labor faithfully and 
devotedly after the hour of Terce in such 
works as are becoming and conductve to the 
common good and in such a wajr that, while 
idicness, the encmy of the soul, is banished, 
they may not quench the spirit of holy prayer 
and devotion, to which other temporal things 
should be subservient. And the Abbess or her 
Vicar is bound to assign to each her manual 
labor and this at the Chapter in the presence 
of alL Let the same be done if any alms be 
sent by any person for the needs of the Sisters 
so that a recommendation may be made for 
them in common."'** And let all these things 
be distributed for the common good by the 
Abbess or her Vicar with the advice of the 


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RuU of St. Clait 





THE Sisters shall not appropriate anything 
to themulves, neither a houBe nor a 
place nor anything ; and as strangers and pU- 
grims in tbis world, serving the Lord in 
poverty and humility, let them send for alms 
with conMence. Nor ought they to be 
ashamed [of so doing] since the Lord made 
Himself poor in this world for our sake. This 
18 that height of the most exalted poverty 
which has made you, my dearest Sisters, 
heiresses and queens of the heavenly kingdom, 
which had rendered you poor in things but 
enriched you with virtues. Let that be your 
portion which leads to the land of the living; 
to it, dearest Sisters, deave with all your 
might for the love of our Lord Jesus Christ 
and His most holy Mother, never wishing to 
possess anything eise under heaven, It is not 
allowable for any Sister to send letters or to 
receive anything or to give [anything] out of 
the monastery without the leave of the Abbess. 
Nor is it allowed to have anything which the 




Appendix I 

Abbess has not given or permitted. If any- 
thing be sent [to a Sister] by her relations or 
by others, let the Abbess give it to her and 
she may use it if she need it: if not, let her 
charitably give it to some Sister who may be 
in want of it. If, however, any money be sent 
to her, let the Abbess, with the advice of the 
discreets. make Provision for the Sister as 
regards those things she may need. 

As to the Sisters who are ill, the Abbess is 
strictly bound etther by herself or by other 
Sisters to make soIicitouB inquiry as well in 
respect o( counsel as of food and of othcr 
necesaaries which their infirmity requires, and 
to provide for them charitably and compas- 
sionately according to the possibility of the 
place. For all are obliged to serve and care 
for their Sisters who are ill even as they would 
with to be treated if taken down by any Ulness 
themselves. Let each one disclose with con- 
fidence her needs to another. And if a mother 
love and nurture her daughter according to 
the flesh, how much the more ought a Sister 
to love and nurture her Sister according to the 
Spirit. Those who are iU may lie on sacks 
filled with ttraw and tnay have feather pillows 
for their heads. And Üiose who need them 
may use woolen socks and mattresses. The 
aforesaid Sisters who are ill may, when they 
are visited by those who enter the monastery, 
answer each one speaking any good words to 


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J^tite of Sl Cläre 





them. But the other Sisters who faave leave 
[to spcak] tnust not presume to speak to those 
entering the monastery except in the presence 
and Hearing of two discreets appointed by the 
Abbess or by her Vicar. The Abbess and her 
Vicar are obliged to observe this way of speak- 
ing tbemselves. 




Appendix I 





IF, AT the instigation of the enemy, any 
Sister sin grievously against the form c^ 
our profession and, being admonished two or 
three times by the Abbess or the other SUters, 
will not amend, she shall in the presence of all 
the Sisters eat bread and water oo the floor in 
the refectory for as many days as she con- 
tinues obstinate, and she shall undergo greater 
punishment if the Abbeas deem it advisable, 
Meanwhile, so long as she is obstinate let them 
pray that God may touch her heart to do pen- 
ance. But let the Abbess and her Sisters take 
heed not to be angry or worried over the sin 
of anybody, because anger and worry hinder 
charity in themselves and in others. If it * 
should happen (which God forbid) that trouble 
or scandal should arise between Sister and 
Sister, let her who was the cause of the trouble. 
at once before she offers the gift of her prayer 
to the Lord, not only prostrate herseif humbly 
at the feet of the other, but let her also 
entreat her in all simplicity to intercede for 



Rute of St Cläre 1 1 7 

her with the Lord that He may forgive her. 
But let the other one, lumdful of that word 
of the Lord: Unless you forgive from the 
heart neither will your Heavenly Father, for- 
give you,* freely pardon her Sister all wrong 
she may have done her. 

The Sbters who serve outnde the monastery 
Bhall not tarry long unless aome reason of 
evident need require it. And let thetn be- 
have modestly and speak little so that they 
may always edify those who see tbem. And 
they must carefully avoid all suspicious meet- 
ings and Conferences with men. They may not 
be godmothers either of men or of women lest 
talk or trouble might thereby arise. Let them 
not dare to carry the ncws of the world within 
the monastery. And they are strictly obliged 
not to repeat outside the monastery anything 
that is Said or done within which might occa- 
sion any scandal. If any one through sim- 
plidty should offend in these two things it is 
left to the prudence of the Abbess to charitably 
impose penance on her. If, however, she do 
this through a bad habit, let the Abbess with 
the advice of the discreets enjoin penance on 
her proporttonate to the fault. 

*An tllusion to Matt 6; is 



Appendix I 





THE Abbess shalt admonish and visit her 
Sisters and ahall correct them humbly 
and in charity, not conunanding them anything 
which may be against their conscience and the 
form of our profession. But let the Sisters 
who are subject remember that for God's sake 
they have given up their own wills. Where- 
fore, they are strictly obliged to obey their 
Abbesses in all those things that they have 
promised the Lord to observe and that are not 
against their conscience and our profession. 
The Abbess, howevcr, must behave so affably 
toward them that they may say and act toward 
her as mistresses toward Üieir handmaid, for it 
ought so to be that the Abbess is the hand- 
maid of all the Sisters. 

I admonish and entreat the Sisters in the 
Lord Jesus Christ, that they beware of all 
pride, vainglory, envy, covetousness, of all care 
and anxiety as to this world, of all detraction 
and murmuring, disscnsion and division. Let 
them be ever solicitous to maintain among 



Rufe 0/ St Cläre 119 

themselves that oneness of mutual charity 
which is the bond of perfection.* And those 
who do not know how to read should not wish 
to leam, but let thcm considcr that they ought 
to desire above all to possess the spirit of the 
Lord and His holy working, to pray always to 
Hirn witb a clean heart, to have humility and 
patience in the time of trial and weakness and 
to love those who persecute, blame and accuse 
US, because the Lord has said. "Blessed are they 
that sufiFer persecution for justice' sake; for 
theirs is the kingdom of heaven." "But he that 
shall persevere unto the end, he shall be 

•An allusion to Coloss. 3: 14. 
tSee Matt. 5:10, and 10:22. 



AppcnJix I 




THE portress should be of mature manners 
and discreet and should be of a suitable 
age. Duriag the day ehe shall remain at the 
entry in a small open cell wtthout a door. 
And let a worthy companton be given her who, 
when it tt necessaty, may be able to replace 
her in all things. The door must be fastened 
as strongly as possible with two distinct iron 
locks, bars and bolts. Let it be locked, more 
especially at night, with two keys, of which 
the portress shall bave one and the Abbess 
the other. Durtng the day it must not be left 
without a guard on any account, and it shall 
be securely locked with one key. Let them 
take the utmost care and make sure that at no 
time the door be left open, save when this can 
hardly be avoided becomingly. Nor shall it be 
(^ened entirely to anybody wishing to enter, 
except to such as have been given permission 
by the Sovereign Pontiff or by our Lord Car- 
dinal. The Sisters shall not allow any one 
to enter the monastery before sunrise nor to 
remain within after sunset unless a dear, 

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Rule of St. Cläre 


reasonable and inevitable reason urges. If sny 
Bishop faave leave to celebrate Mass within, 
whethcr for the bicssing of an Abbess or for 
the profession of any Sister as a Nun or for 
any other reason, let him be satisfied with as 
fcw and as virtuous companions and attend- 
ants as may be. Whencver it is neceasary for 
any persons to enter [the monastery] to do 
soine work, let the Abbess be careful to place 
a proper person at the door who shall open 
it only to those appointed and to no others. 
Let the Sisters be most sedulously on their 
gusrd lest they been seen by those who enter. 


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Appendix I 





OUR Visitor shall always belong to the 
Order of Friars Minor according to the 
will and mandate of cur Cardinal. And let 
him be such that bis iotegrity and character 
be well known. Hia office shall be to correct 
in the head as well as in the members the 
excesses committed against the form of cur 
profession. Being in an open place, so that he 
may be seen by othera, he may speak with 
several or singly [with each one] about tbose 
thtngs which pertain to the work of the Visita- 
tion, according as he may deem most expedient. 
A Chaplain with one companion, a cleric of good 
fame and tried discretion, and two lay brothers 
of hoty Ufe and lovers of virtue to assist us in 
cur poverty, such aa we have always had 
through the compassion of the aforeaaid Order 
of Friars Minor, we ask as a favor of the same 
Order for the love of God and of the Blessed 
Francis. The Chaplain may not enter the 
monastery without a companion. And when 
they enter they must stay in an open place so 
that they may always be seen by each other 


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Ruh ej St. Cläre 


and by others. It shall be lawful for them to 
enter for the confessions of those who are un- 
able through illness to go to the parlor, to 
communicate the same, for Extreme Unction, 
and to assist the dying. For funeralt and 
solemn Masses for the dead, for digging, open- 
ing or even preparing graves, tfaose who are 
worthy may enter in auitable number at the 
dtscretion of the Abbess. In fine, the Sisten 
are ttrictly obUged always to have that 
one of the Cardinais of the Holy Roman 
Church as our Govemor, Protector and Cor- 
rector, who haa been appointed by the Lord 
Pope for the Friars Minor, to the cnd that ever 
submissive and subject at the feet of the eame 
holy Church, steadfast in the Catholic faith, 
we may observe perpetually the poverty and 
huRiüity of our Lord Jesus Christ and of His 
moBt holy Motber and the holy Gospel which 
we have soteninly promised. Amen. 







1. See Sptcultim PtrftcUonis, Ed. Sabatier (Paris, \9tß), 
X — 108. p. 314- 

2. OdIj tfae Axf before her death did Sl Qare tucceed 
in obuining the Papal Bull in which thc Fovertjr Francii 
bad sought and taught was sanctioned in all its pristine 

3. See her Ruic — Ch. I in Appendix. 

4. See Legtnda Major S. Francitci (Ed. Quaraccbi, 1898), 
p. 37. 

5. "Thcre is no translation of the Life of St. Cläre," 
writes Prof. A. G. Little, "nor of the Ruie of her Order." 
Francitcan Littraturt for Englüh Readers, London, 1904. 

6. See "The Personality of Cläre of Assisi," by the late 
Sir Home Gordon, Bart., in the Oxford and Cambridge 
Review (London, Constable), No. 5, 1908, Kljchaelmas 
Term, pp. 33 ff. 

7. It can no longer be concealed that the pretty story told 
tu the Fiorttti as to how St. Gare and St Francis ale to- 
gether al the Poriinncola, is — hlte many others of that ilk — 
wholly devoid of historic foundation. It is surely a pity 
to have tö acknowledgc Ibis fact, but (be demands of truth 
are imperative. 

8. "Seripsit nobis formam vivendi ... et plura scripta 
nobis tra^dit" Testamentum B. Oarae, Seraph. Legislat. 
Textui Originales (Quaraechi, 1897), p. 27Ö. 

g. These lines owe their preservation to the fact that St. 
Cläre inserted them in thc definitive Ri>ie of her Order, 
conßrmMl the day before she died. (See p. iio.) 



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126 Appendix II 

la See Spec. Ptrfectionis (Ed Sabatier), p. l8o and p. 


II. More than a hatf-centurr ago Professor Vincenzo 
Locatelli made a fniitless aearch for these documents. See 
his yUa di S. Chiara (Assisi, 1854), p. 131. 

13. Under this title the authorittes of the Order appear 
to have comprised a collection o( the primitive bioeraphies 
of St. Francis, as opposed lo the "New Legend" composed 
hj St Bonaventure in 1363. 

13. The text of this decree is as foUows: "Fraecipit Gene- 
rale Capitulum per obedieniiam quod omnes legendae de 
beato Francisco olim factae delcantur et. ubi inveniri pote- 
runt extra ordinem, ipsas (ratres sludeant amovere," etc 
See Ehrle "Die ältesten Redactionen der Generalconstitu- 
tionen des Franiiskanerordens" in Ai-chiv. für Litt, und 
Kirchengetchichu (i8(w), p. 39; also Little, "Decreei of the 
Giapters General of the Friars Minor 1260-1282" in Eng. 
Hist. Rtv.. L Xni (1898). pp. 704-fi. 

14. Its aim was no doubt the controversy then ravagiog 
the Order as to the observance of the Rule, but see Van 
Ortroy, S. J., in Anal Boll, t. XVIII, p- i?4; Lemmens, 
Doe. Am. Franeiteana, pMi II, p. 11; Ed. d'Alencon in 
Etudei Franciicaints, t 1, p. 656; Faloci in Mise. Frone., 
t, VII, p. iSO; Little in Eng. Hist. Rtv., Oct., 1902, p. 651. 

15. Ubertino's testimony on this point may be found in 
his remarkable book, Arbor Vitae Crucifixae Jtiu, which he 
composed on Mount La Venu in 1305. See the edition 
printed at Venice, 1485, Hb. V, c 5. fol. E III r. a. 

16. Arbor Vtiat L c. 

17. The same is true, as a whole, of the otber early mon- 
asteries of the Cläres I have visited at Spello, Foligno, 
Perugia and elsewhere. 

18. I am glad of this opportunity to expreu my gratitude 
anew to His Eminence Cardinal Cassetta, Protector of the 
Uonastery, for according me this rather unusual favor 10 
promptly and so courteonsly; to Father Michael Biht, O. 
F. M., for the invaluable assistance he rendered me on thtt 


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Noiet 129 

occasion u on so manj otben, and to the Abbesi Mother 
Cannela Cherubina for the cordiality and diacernment with 
which the lightened the labor of examining and cataloguing 
the archive. 

igi Among ihese U an exquisite alb made bjt St Cläre 
for St Francis, and which attracted much attention at the 
Mosira d'Arle Umbra, Perugia, 1907. Since then it has 
been placed, together with the Breviary, in a dosed reli- 
quarj abovc the altar at 5. Chiara, quite out of sight and 

ao. This precious relic, which has been described at length 
by P, Ed. d'Atencon (De Breviario S. FraneUei, Rome 
1898), is not to be confounded with another Breviaiy 
preserved at S. Damiano and which ia said 10 have been 
written for St. Cläre bj Leo himself. On this second 
Breviaty, see Cholat, "Le Breviaire de Sainte Oaire," in 
Opuscules de Critigue Hisioriqur. fasc. viii (Paris, Oet., 

ii. I have ciscwhere published a \\i,\ o( them: See the 
"Inventarium omnium dotumeniorum quae in archivo Proio- 
Monasterii S. Oarae Assisiensis nunc asservantur," in the 
Arrh. Fron. Hist., an, I (1908), fasc. 11— III. pp. 413-43»- 

22. See Annales ad. an. 1238. nn. XIV— XV (t III, p. 

23. Insirumenii e Bolle ecc. dall'anno 963 sino all 1646 
copiate dall'archivio della Cattedrale di S. Rufina dal Cav. 
Francesc' Antonio Frondini (1795). 

24. Four charming letters to Blessed Agnes, Princess of 
Bohemia, who (ounded a monastery of the Cläres at 
Prague, are all ihat remain to us. They are given by the 
Botlandists, Acta SS., Martii I, pp. SoS-3^7- 

2$. It may be found in the Seraphiiae Legiilal'ionit 
Texlut Originale, pp. 273-280 

36. These Papal ducuments are printed in the Bullaritim 
Franciscanutn of Sbaralea, tt I and 11, passim. 

27, Ediled by the Bollandists, Aela SS., Aug. II, (12 
Aug.). pp. 754-767- 


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130 AppenJu 11 

38. For i, detaiied discutsion of die crJtical qncttioni 
connected with the Sourcet of the history »f St Cläre, 
readers are referred to an articie on thi» subject by the 
prcient wrtter in the Arthiv. Franc. Hut., an. III, fasc 2. 

39. See p. 91. 

30. L c, p. 74». 

31. Optra Omnia S. Bonav. t. VIII (Quaracchi, 1898) 
p. CXVI. 

33. See, for example, Van Ortrojr in Anal. Bolland., t 
XXII (1903), p. 360; Fatod in Müceil. Francei., VoL VII 
fasc V (iSk», PP- 157-8; E. d'Alenton, S. Francisci Vita 
et Miracula, etc., Auclore Fr. Thoma dt Celano (Rome, 
Desdie, 1906), p. XLVI; Lemmem, Calahgut Sanctorum 
Fratrum Minorum (Rome, typia Salluslianis, 1903}, p. XV 
and passim; Sabatier, Sfitculum Ptrfect., cit., p. LXXXV; 
De Kerval in Bullet. Critico, etc., an. I (1905), p. 4, elc 

33. Ol« Quellen xur Geschickte des hl. Frans von Assitt 
(Gotha, Perthes, 1904), pp. 340-243. 

34. Chronica Fralris Jordani, ed. Boehmer in ColUction 
d'Etudes et de doeuments, t. VI (Paris, 1908), a 19, pp 
32 ff. 

35. These three works have been ediled with a wealth of 
critical apparatus by the present archivist general of the 
Capuchins. See S. Franeisd Assisientis Vita, dt, note 32. 
There is an English Version based on this edition — The 
Lives of S. Francb of Auisi, by Brother Thonuu of 
Celano; translated by A. G. Ferren Howell (London, 
Uethucn. 190S), pp. XXIV-360. 

3& For an excellent snmmary of the whole question see 
Dubois: "Thomas of Celano, the HiXorian of St Firnndt'* 
in Calh. University Bulletin, VoL XIII, Nol a <April 
1907)1 PP- 350-268, 

37. They are induded in d'AIen^on'i edilton of hü 
works dted above, pp. 446-451. 

3& See aop, "La Prose 'Dies Irae* et I'Ordre des 
Frirej Mineurs" in Revut d» Chant Crtgorien, XVI 



Nota 131 

UW), Pf. 45-53: and Henrr: "Dies Irac" io Cath. Ency- 
clopedia, t IV, pp. 787-788. 

39. MS. Maßliabechi cL XXXVIII, No. 135. 

4a See "II Codicc Magliabecchiano delU ttoria di S. 
Cbiara" in Boüeitino dtlla SocUtä Utubra di Sloria Palria, 
tora. I (Perugia, 189s). PP. 4"7-436- 

41. See his Noiieie sicure dtlla morte, ttfioltura, ean- 
onutasion* < transtanont dt S. Fromcetco (Florence, l8s), 
p. laS. 

43. Sloria di S. Franctsco, Üb. i (Foligno, 1827), p. 336. 

43. Tbc fact tbat the writcr refert to SL Oare in tbe 
Prologue as "our glorious mother" mtght pcrbapi point to 
a Poor Gare as tbe scribc. 

44. MS., pagv 3. 

45. See the critique of Cozza-Lmii's articie in AnaUcta 
Boüand., XV (1896). pp. loo-ioi. 

46. S. Francisci Vita, etc., eil., p. xtvii, tt 2. 

47. "Et haec ad praesens de virginibus Deo dicatis et 
devotissimis ancillis Cbristi dicta suiüciant, cum ipsarum 
vita mirißca et institutio gloriosa . . . proprium opus re- 
quirat et otinm," I Cel., ed d'Atencon, S 3C^ p. 33. 

48. See Sbaralea, Supplementum (Rome, 1806), p. 674; 
Ed d'Alengon. I. c-, pp. XVIII-XIX. Tbe date of bis death 
is unknown. He was buried at S. Giovanni, but, after tbe 
abandonment of the monastery toward the close of tbe 
fifteenth Century, bis remains were transferred to tbe 
Churcb of San Francesco at Tagliacozzo, where I have 
recently seen them exposed for veneration under tbe high 

49. For example, in our present Life of St. Gare (see 
sbove, p. 36), he says that Iimocent Ilt firsi approved 
the Ruie of the Gares, whereas in his "First Life" of St. 
Francis (I Cel. § 30) he attributes tbis approval to 
Gregory IX. But see above, p. xxviii. 

50. His own words read like a disciaimer of personal 
knowledge. See Prologue, p. 4. 

51. See p. 4. 



132 Apptndtx II 

52. See p. go. 

53. This writer teils us that the IJfe of St Cläre was 
Ürst desirrihed hy Messer Barlholomew. Bishop of Spoleto, 
and th^it "allre cose notabilc furone da aicuni fratri inscritte 
da essa Beala." See Cozza-Luxii, I. c, p. 420. 

54. Rußno, Cbre's Cousin, Angelo, Leo. Giles, Jumper 
and other companions of St. Francis who had known 
Cläre, were still alive, besidci many of ihe nuiu who had 
Itved with her. 

55. See p. 74. In like manner Celano teils US in hia 
"Second Life" that St. Francis received th« Stigmata "soon 
afler" ipauio posi) he heard the voice from the crucifix at 
San Damiano, an event which took place eighteen yeara 
earlierl See II Cd., § "■ 

56. See on this question Grisar, Chureh HUtory and the 
Critkal Spirit (London, 1901). p. 10. 

57- See p. 75. 
58. See p. 89. 
59- See p. 5. 
6a See p. a6. 

61. See p. 36. 

62. See p. 42- 

63. This cotnbinaiion of strength and tenderness is verr 
slrikingly portrayed in the Vivarini's picture of St. Qare in 
Ihe Academy of Venice. (On this picture See Salter, 
FrancUcan Legendi in Italtan Arl (London, Dent.; New 
York. Dutton, 1905), p- 19t. 

£4. "Erat columna nosira," she says in her will, "unica 
consolatio post Deum et firmamentuin." See Testamcntum 
B. Clara«, I. c-, p. 276, 

6s Perbaps the best known of ihese lives are ihose of 
Giuseppe da Madrid (Rome, 1832)1 Locatelli (Assisi, 1854), 
Demore (Paris, 1856: new German translalion by Schmid, 
Ratisbon, 1905), Ricard (Paris, 1895)1 etc. None of thesc 
works has been translated. It is perhaps stranger still that 
tliere should be no English life of St. Cläre at alL The 
work entitied St. Cläre, Sl. Colelle. and Ihe Poor Cläres. 



Noitt 133 

by a Relifiious of the Order of the Poor Qares (Dublin, 
Fowler, 1S64, pp. xii-370) comains a good sketch of Sl 
Oare, but it is unfortunately extremely rare, and, thcrefore, 
little known. I am Jndebted to Fr. Thaddeus Hcrmans, 
O. F. M„ for procuring me a copy of it. There is also a 
Sketch of St Qare in The Lxves of the Saitili and Blcssed 
of the Three Orders of St Francis, Vol. II (Taurton, 
1886), pp. 557-578; but this Tiotk is likewise very scarce. 

66. SainU Clairt d'Assise, Paris, Foussielgne, igoa, pp. 
xiT— 353. 

67. Hitloire abrigfe de f Ordre de Saintt Clairt d'Assise, 
Lyons, Desclfe, 1906, 2 vols., pp. xxiv— 413, and ii— 574- 

68. Vita di S. Francesco (Foligno. 1837), lib. II. cap. 
XV, art I. 

69. Vit de S. Franfois, 18 ed. (Paris, 1896), p. XXXIX. 
7a Jnventario delf anlica biblioUca del Sacra ConvetUo 

di S. Francesco di Assisi compilato nel 1381, etc. Assisi, 
(I0o6, Tip. Metastasio, pp. xlv — 270). See pp. 166 //. 

71. The first part of this versihed version has been pub- 
lished by FIlippo Sensi, "LeEL'cnda Laiina Versificata del 
secolo XIU intorno a S. Chiara di Assisi" in Botlellino 
della Socieiä Umbra di Sloiia Patria, vol. I (Perugia, 
'89s). PP' 114-125. The latter part of the poem is illegible; 
at least Prof. Lcto Alessandri teils me he cannot read il. 
and where he has faiied, who may hope to succeed? 

72. See Legenda Aurea, ed. Graesse (Leipzig, 1850), 
pp. 949-950. 

73. See De Conformitair, etc., Libcr I in Analccta Frau- 
cts., t. IV (Quaracchi, 1906). pp. 351-357. 

74. De Probalis Sanclornm Vilis, R. P. Fr. Laiircntius 
Surius Carthusiae Colonieni^is primum edit., etc., t. IV, pp. 
609-626 (Edit. of 1579, t. IV, pp. 634-650; edit. of 1618, t. 
VIII, pp. 106-114: edit. of 1877, t. VIII, pp. 269-271). 

7S Historia Seraphica a F. Henrico Sedulio concinnata, 
Antverpiae. Sumptibus Haeredum Martini NutÜ, MDCXIII, 
pp. 526-544. 



134 ApptnJix II 

76. See Acta SS., t. 11, Aug. ed. Pari», 1867, pp. 7S4- 

77. For details as to these MSS. tee ^£(11 SS., L c. 

78. These chapten seeoi to have lost their way into the 
Bollandiit MS.; they form chapters XV and XXXIII of 
the Fiorrtli. See above, p. 127, n. 7. 

7g, See Legende der glorioaer maghet Sinte Clara: In't 
licht gegeven door P. Fr. Steph. Schoutens, minderbroeder : 
Gedrukt te Hoogstraten bij L. Van Hoof-Roelans, MCMIV. 

80. See The Golden Legend, or Lives of the Saints aa 
Englished by William Caxton, VoL VI (London. Dent, 
'500), p. 161 //. A worlc dted by Chevalier {Riperloire 
des Sources Historiques du Mayen Age, VoL 1 [nouvelle 
ed, Paris, 1905), p. 93s. under the title of The Life and 
Rille of St. Ciaire and Convertio» of St, Agnes her Sister, 
etc., London, 1622, ib., 1635), I have not been able to find, 
but I am strongly inclined to believe that this book may 
have been a reprint of the "8th Booke of the Chronicies 
of the Frier Minors" — a work drawn from Mark of Lis- 
.bon's well'known Chronicle and published at St Omen 
in 1618 by John Heigham. A copy of this work, which is 
exceedingly rare, exists in the Fcanciscan Convent at 
Taunton, and it is to the kindness of the Abbesi of that 
Convent, the Rev. Mother Hyacinth, 0. S. F., that I am 
indebted for a description of it 

81- Tke PriHCtse of Poverty; St. Cläre and the Order of 
Poor Ladies, by Fr. Uarianus Fiege, O. M. Cap., pnbliihed 
by the Poo; Gares of the Monastery of St Cläre, Evani- 
ville, Ind, 1900. 

8z. /. e.. St Frandi of Aasisi and bis disciples. 

83. Pope Alexander IV, who had omoniied St Gare. 
Wldle Bishop of Ostia he had be<n appointed Protector 
of the Order by Innocent IV. 

84. /. e., acts or praces« of St Oare'i canoniiatioa 

85. In its primitive meaning the Legend was tlie history 
to be read (legenda) on the feait of a Saint; bnt from 
the thirteenth Century onward the term came to include all 


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hasiographical luirralives. See Delehaye, Tht Ltgends of 
ihe Saintt. Translated by Mrs. V. M. Crawford. London; 
Lonfmans, Greei), 1907, pp. lo-ii. 

B6. Sevcral of these includins Rufino, Oare't cousin, 
Giles, Leo, Angelo and Juniper, were sitll living, and the 
three last-named had assisied the dyiag Saint. See p. 69. 

87. /. *., the Poor Gares al the Monastcry of S. Dam- 

88. "Ailmirabilis femina clara vocabulo et virtute . . . 
claro satis genere traxit originefn," etc. The author here 
plays OB the dcrivation of the name Clara — clear or shining. 
He had alreadjr done so in his First Ufe of St Francis 
(see I CtL, S 116). 

89. Tradition teils vs that his name was Favorino, that 
he was a scion of the noble house of Scifi or Scefi and 
I/ird of Sasso Rosso, a medieval Castle of which a few 
stones may slill be seen on one of the southem slopes of 
Mt. Subasio high up above the old road to Spello. We 
arenot able, pace Fr. de Cheranci, to verify this tradition 
by documents. But it ntay well be true for all that ; we 
know that a populär tradition of a people like the Assisians 
may sometimes be more important than any documenL 
On the otber band, it would be idie to deny that there was 
a period when illustrious birth added so markedly'to a 
person's merit that hagiologisls were at pains to make out 
a patent of nobÜtty in favor of thoie whose lives they 
wrote. Nothing, for example, would satisfy cerlain six- 
teenth Century writers on St. Francis but to invest him 
witba gcncalogical iree and a coat of arms. (See e. g., 
the "Arbor Consanguinitatis B. Francisci," given by Ro- 
dulphtus — Hisloriarum Seraphicae Religionif Libri" Tres, 
Venice, 1586, lib. I, p. 3.) It is just possible that the 
pedigree of St. Oare fumished by Locatelli (Viia äi S. 
Ckiara, Assist, 1854, p. 334) and rcproduced by de Chir- 
anc4 {Sainie Ciaire ^Assist, Paris, 1902, p. 9) and by 
Jörgensen {Saint Frangoit d'Assisc, Paris, igog, p. 185) 
may owe its origin to ihis same tendencj-. In point of 



136 Appendix U 

fact, all that is now known concernmg the ancestors of St. 
Gare scarcely gufficcs to do more than arouse a vain 
cariositir. The fact that some early tegenda givc her the 
title of Domina (t. g., I Cel., S Ii6, p. 133; and the 
present Life, see p. 2g) is not of value in itself, but only in 
so far as Jt hetps to confimi the populär traditioa Beyond 
doubt Cläre was of noble lineage, like her cousin RuHno, 
one of the famous "Three Companions" of St. Francis 
("Frater Ruiiniu Gpii ... de nobilioribiis civibits Assiii, 
consanguineus S. Garae." Chron. XXIV Generalium in 
Anal. Francis., t III, p. 46), bul her contemporary biog- 
rapher was so wholty preoccupied with the splendor that 
radtated from the Saint that he eonccrned himself very little 
about her family. That is all we liave to consider here. 

go. The Latin forni, Hortulana. may mean a gardener, 
and I havc the hardihood to believe that if our author 
mentions the name of Clare's mother here. after having 
omitted that of her falher, it is largely bccausc its deriva- 
tion affords him such a (empiing lusut veiboritm. Pope 
Alexander indulges in the same play on words in the Bull 
of Clare's Canonization — "optima Hortulana quae in horto 
dominico protiilit talem plantam" (see Sbaralea. I. c. H, 
p. 82). We are indebted to B1. Bernardine of Feltria 
( + [414) for the infornialion ihat Ortolaiia'd faiiiÜy iiamc 
was Fiumi. 
gi. /. c, at the sanctiiary of St. Micliaol on Monte 
1 . Gargano in Apulia. 

1 02. The fönt at which St Cläre received tliis uncommon 

\ ■ name, now so populär, is still shown in the Cathedral of 

S, Rußno at Assisi. Her sister, St. Agnes, as well as 

I St Francis himself and the Emperor Frederick 11, were 

also baptircd there. (See Dufl Gordon, Tht Story of 

Assisi. Third Edition. London: Dent, 1903, p. 299.) 

' [ II94 is generally assigned as the year of Clare's birth ; ac- 

'^ cording to Ihe HS. Chronicle of Mariano of Florence, she 

was bom 16 July of that year. 

93. Miterorum miserias miseranteiit — we havc here a 





translauble exampl« of our author's practica of verbal 

94. This wu the primitive tnethod of reckoning the num- 
ber of prayen repeated. Long before Sl Clare's time 
strings of beada were in use for this purpos«. and these 
prayer-beads in the medieval Church Latin werc known 
aa Pater Notter*. (See Du Gange, Glostarium.) Thus 
we read that St Cläre in laler life gave her Pater Noster 
to Bteaaed Agnei of Bohemi^ (See Anal. Francis, I. iii, 
p. 183. n. 7.) 

95. All Aiaiii waa Ihcn ringing with the vagaries of 
Francii, and it ia not unlikely that Oare may have seen 
him on his way to S. Damiano carrying the stones that 
were to repair its toltering walli. 

96. Tbb confidante of Clare's is thou^t to have been 
her aunt Pacifica Guelfucd, who is Said by CrJütofani 
(Slorie di Atsisi, 3 ed., Assiai, 1902, p. gi^ snd othcrs lo 
have assisted the Saint in her subsequent flight froni hoine 
and to have followed her into the cloisler. All honor to 
her memory, whoever she was ! 

97- Bartholomew of Pisa, writing aboul 1389, teils us 
that Francit, after tfaeir first interview, wishing to test 
Oare's vocaiion, bade her go from door to door ibrough 
her native city clolhed in sackcloth bcgging for bread. 
(See his Liber dt Conformilale (Quaracebi cdition, I. ], 
igoS), p. 352.) No mcntion o( ihis is found clsewhcre. and 
allhough it is just such a lest as Francis might have set, it 
must yet be accepted with some reserve. 

98. The prelate here menlioned was undoubledly Guido 
II, who governed the diocesc of Asfisi from iroj to 122B, 
and who was the lifelong friend and proiccior of St. 
Francis. Stress is laid on this Jncident because the palm 
was "an emblem o{ the victory Gare was about to achieve 
over the world." 

99. There is nothing to identify thcm; but Oare's 
aunt Facifica, already menttoned. appears to have becn onc 
of them. 



138 Appendix 11 " ' ' 

toa A •mall arcbed doorway is still pointcd oat in 
Asstsi, hard bj thc Piazza S. Chiara, as htitig according to 
local tradition the one through which St Cläre toolc flight 
from her father's house toward an unknown future. We 
are told Ihat the doors of the housei of old Assisi used to 
be wallcd up for one fear afler a dead body had been 
carrted out through them, and manjr restiges of theie 
"death doors" still remaia The door here referred to 
may have been a "porta di mortuccio'' of this kind, which 
trould have been naturally adapted to the flight of St 
Cläre, who by this act "died to the otd tife." (See Goff, 
Atjisi of St. Francis. London: Chatto & Windus, 1908, 
p. J04.) A photograph of the door in question, especially 
taken for the present Tolume, is herc reproduced. 

loi. This dramatic scene took place on the night foUow- 
ing Palm Snnday, wbich in laia feil on 18 March. 

102. Many devout and tearned people then believed them- 
selves to be Hving in the evening of the world — "in vespere 
mundi tendentis ad occasum." 

103. The Latin word Locus, or place, used here and else- 
wherc fay our author, is x technicat term by which the 
early Franciscan conrents were designated Sttualed on 
a piain below Assisi, the little wayside chapel of St. Mary 
of the Poriiuncola had been donated to Francis about laii 
by the Benedictines of Mount Subasio. Adjoining this 
humble sanctuary, where his vocation had been revealed 
to him, the first Franciscan convenl was fornied by the 
erection of a few smalt huts made of wattle, straw and 
mud. This settlement became the cradle of the Order 
("Caput et Mater Ordinis") and the central Spot in the 
life of Francis. (See II CeL, j 18; IIl Soc.. 8 S6: Bonay. 
Ug. Mai., II, 8 8, and 5^«. Prtf. IV, 55. p. 97-) Thc 
litlle chapel is still tbere; 00 longer in the open piain, but 
Standing bcneath the dorne of the great basilica erected 
in 1569 by St Plus V as a protecting endosure and to 
accommodate the enormous crowds of pilgrims drawn to 
Assisi annually by the faroous Porziuncola Indulgence of 


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ATubi 139 

a August One of ihe Urge frescoes by Apptani beneath 
the cupola represents St Oare here dedicating herseif to 
tfa« Service of God. 

104. The church and adjoining monastery of S. Paolo 
here referred to belonged to Ihe Benediciine runs and was 
about an hour's walk from the Poniuncola further on in 
the piain. The monastery no longer exists. It itood on 
the outskirts of Bastia, near the rirer Chi^o, and occu- 
pied the site of the present "Canipo Santo," or barial- 
groiind of Basti». The old dupel of St Qare's time is 
still Standing, but the restorations it underwent, afler 
havtng been partially demolisbed by earthquake, hare sadly 
defonned it, especially as regards the interior. It is now 
used as a mortuary chapeL The story of San Paolo is 
brieAy told in the followtng inscription which I have 
copied from a slab in the chapel : "Questo edifizio che sino 
dal sectilo XII fü momsterio di vergini BcTiedittine ove 
ripar6 Chiara di Asisi a Cristo novellamente disposata e 
che poscia ai miserandi tempi di parle guelfa e ghibtielina 
venne mutato in arnese di guerra dopo V secoli d'ingrato 
abbandono tix per pietoso comiglio del Popolo di Basita 
dato alla sepoltura dei lor cari estinti sindaco di essa terra 
Giuseppe Angelini MDCCCLXII." 

105. There has been some diiTerence of opinion as to 
the location of this monastery at the time of St Qare's 
sojoum there. Fratini (Biografia di S. Chiara, Foligno, 
188S, p- 14), Le Monnier (Httloire de S. Fratifoii, Paris, 
Lccoffre, 1891, t I, p. 230), and others, assert that it then 
stood within the city gates of Assist and lipon the site of 
the present dtocesan seminary. This vIew is confirmed 
by certain early documents I have seen in the archive at 
S. Chiara. (Invenlarium, etc., I. c, p. 436, n. 45). But 
these documents refer to the year 1270, white onr aulhor is 
here concemed with the year iziz. Moreover, the topo- 
graphical details he gives us about Panso in a later chapter 
(see p. 42) — the mountain, the brook, ihe fields and vine- 
yards — point conclusivcly, as Vinceitzo Locatclli remarks 


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140 AppenJa 11 

(Vita di S. Chiara, Asiisi, i8S4, pp. 40-41)1 to a niral nton- 
asterr. (See, also, Cristofani, op. ctL, pp. 34 and 91.) 
To me it seeim highlr probable that the Benedictine nuM 
at S. Angelo, who before 133S faad embraced the Ruie 
of St Oare, subsequentljr rooved into the city for sreater 
securiQr, juct as the Garet at S. Damiano dtd in 136a 
Tliis bypotheiU it not only most likely in itself in view of 
the conditions theo prevailtns, but it lervea to recondle 
all vparent contrarietj of testimonj ai to the locatton of 
S. Angelo in Paiuo. M. Paul Sabatier, who at firat hcld 
the tarne opinion ai Fratini and Lc Monrier {Vit, cit, p. 
I75)> hat ttnce changed hit mind; and it wat under hit 
guidaDce that I vitited the original site of the old mon- 
aatenr. It it situated on the declivitr of Mount Subatio, 
nearlr midway between the path (hat lead* np to the 
Carceri and the old road to Spello, and is abont forty 
minutei' walk from Assisi through the Porta Nuova. The 
monatterj disappeared long ago, but part of the old gate- 
way and some traces of the cloitter are yet dtstinguith- 
■ble in (he fann-buildings now known at S. Angelo in 
Panio and which have been well detcribed by Mrs. de 
Selincourt {Homes of the First FraHcitcans, London, Dent, 
I90S> PP^ ia6-ic8.) A stone in whit was once the chapel 
beari this memotial: "D. O. M. Ecclesiam istam dicatain 
divo Michaeli Archaogelo hoc in loco a fundamentis erexit 
anno 1604 Dux Ferrantes Bonacquiiti cum lapidibus retus- 
tiuimi, celeberrimi ted dimti tempU Sancti Angeli in Panzo 
ab codem translatit de a>nuntsstone Marcelli Cretcentii 
tunc temporit £pitcopi Atitien. largientis eidem contueta 
privilegia etiam de beneplacito." What follows is no longer 
kgible. No photograph of S. Angelo or of S. Paolo, the 
other Benedictine monasteiy hallowed by asiodation with 
St Cläre, hat, so far at I know, ever been pnbliihed; 
those. therefore, here reproduced have a special interest 

106. Namely, to the humble dwelling adjoining the 
church and situated on a slope below Assisi, about a quarter 
of a mile from the Porto Nuova. S. Damiano was one 





ot thc tbrce ancient chapek reitored bj the labors of St 
Frands shortly after hb converston. St Gare teils us in 
her will that the Samt, while engaged in its restoration, 
once mounted on a wall of the church and cried out to 
some poor peoplc of the vicinity: "Come and help me in 
building the moraster; ol S. Damiano, for therc will 
ytt be ladie* there by wbofe renowned and holy way of 
life our Heavenlj Father will be glorificd thronghcmt Hü 
Holy Church" (kc Te>L B. Qarae, 1. c, p. 374), and the 
general lie «nd appearance of the place mutt still give to 
the vtsitor > vetr just idea of what S. Damiano was in 
the earlj dayt. Within, the onBinal portions of the mon- 
astery are still in iheir primitive condition; thc old rcfec- 
tOTT of the Saint rematns unaltered, lave that its low- 
arched ceiling is brownish black and grirny with age; her 
little choir, with its worm-eaten stallt, ii there too; a 
winding flieht of foot-ivorn sicps leads up to her long, 
heavily^raftercd dormitory, with iti dim-lit oratory, and 
on a tiny terrace adjoining one may see where Ctare made 
B miniature garden. Thanki lo the intervention and gen- 
crosily of the Ist« Lord Ripon, S. Damiano was saved 
froffl confiscation by the Italian government and secured 
to the Seraphic Order. It is now the property of Lord 
Walter Kerr. The history of the church and monastery has 
been written by Cristofani: La Storia dello Chiesa « Chi- 
ottro di S. Damiano, Assiii, 18S3, 3 Ed., pp. 344. See, 
also, II Sanluario di S. Damiano, Assisi, 1907- 

107. See II CeL VI, { 10, p. i?5; Leg. III Soc., C V-, 
g 13; BonaY. Ug. Maj., C II, S I- See, also, I CeL IV, 
S S //., and VIII. S iS. This same crucifix, old even 
thcn, and still beautifui, may now be seen at Assist in the 
chipel of San Giorgio at Santa Chiara It was taken 
Ihither by the Oares when, in ia6o, they moved from S. 
Damiano into the dty. 

loS. In translating the words "glebas membrorum terit," 
I have followed the Interpretation of the Bollandists. 

log. The long, wide Umbrian piain stretching below 




Appendix II 

Assi» on the one hand dowa to Spolelo and northwest to 
Perugia. Qare's horiion wa* boanded bj the moiintain 
ranges of this Valley of SpoletO. 

IIa Pre-eminent among these was the Princess Agnes 
of Bohetnia, wha foanded a monastery of Qares at Prague 
in 133& "If the had left me for s morta] man," exclaimed 
Frederic II, lo whom As:nes had been aflianced, "I would 
hiTC tikea rengeance with the sword, but bccause she pre- 
fen the King of Heaven to me I cannot talce offensc.'* 
See Anal Franc., t III, p. 1S3, a 7. 

tu. For an account of the spread of the Order through- 
out Europe during the lifetime of St. Cläre, see Wauer, 
Entttehung und Ausbreitung dei Ktarissenordent, etc., 
Leipiig, igo6, passim. 

112. This was in lais, or about that year. For the greftt 
Spiritual crisis in Gare's life, which is here called her 
"conversion," and from which our author computes the 
other events he records, occurred in 121z. 

113. The Latin here hardlf lends itself to a Itteral trans- 
lation in our more fastidious language: "Intirmarum sedilia 
ipsa larabat, ipsa tergebat suo illo nobili spiritu, nee sordida 
fugiens nee foetida perhorrcscens." 

114. What purports to be 3 copjr of this document was 
published in some editions of the Firmamenlum Triutn 
Ordinum B. FrancUci, a sixteenlh-century compilation of 
maitria seraphtca (notablf in the Paris edition of 1512, 
par. 5, foL 5 r « and b; it is not contained in the Ve- 
netian edition of 1513.) Sharalea, tn his Bullaiy (t I, 
p. SOi note e) throws doubt upon this printed text, and 
calls attention to the fact that jt b widiout date and hat 
> most unusual ending. In spite of this note of waming, 
some have continued to regard the text in question as gen- 
uine, alleging, as an argument, that Cläre allndcs to it in 
her will. (See Sabatier, Fie, p. 184. n. L) Bat Cläre 
simply declares she aiked Innocent III and his successors 
to confirra her profession of Poverty. She says not a 
word about bis having written it Here are her words: 


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"Ad majorem nuleliin soUidU fui a Domino Papa In- 
nocRitio, sub cujus tempore cocpimus, et ab alüs succes- 
«oribus suis, nostram professionem sanctissimae paupertatis, 
quam et Patri nostro promisimus, eorum priTÜegiis facere 
corroborari." (Test B. Qarae, L c^ p. a??.) Whether 
or DOt Imiocent III granted Qare's Petition in writing or 
oiiI]r vivo voct, tbrough the medium of St Francis, ia not 
dear. What n certain ts tbat tt wu confirmcd in writing 
by liit iDcceuor, Gregory IX. (See note ii&) 

115. Gregory IX had ascended the Papal throne in laa?. 

116. This memorable interview seems to have taken pUce 
in May-June, taaS, when Gregory IX, who had come to 
Assisi for the preliRiinar^es of the canonization of St 
Francis, visited St. Gare at S. Damiano. (See I CcL 
II, S 122, p- 131; Wadding, op. cit., ad an. 123S [L 11, p. 
175]. n- !■) In September of the same ycar Ihc Pope 
yiclded and so far gave wajr to Clare's view a> to grant 
her the unique privilegc known as the "Privilegium Pauper- 
tatis," hy virtue of which she might never be constrained 
to receive any possessions. The original of this predout 
docnment, the first one of its kind ever issued by the Holy 
See, is prcserved in [he choir of the Oares at Assisi. I 
have been pennitted to take it out of the glass case that pro- 
tecta it and to photograph it for reproduction here. For the 
beneGt of thote who are unfamiliar with the abbreviations 
it contains, the following copy of the text may be of in- 
terest : "Gregorius Episcopus Servus Servorum Del : Di- 
leclis in Christo filiabus Clarae ac alüs Ancillis Christi in 
Ecclesia Sancti Damiani Episcopatus Assisi congregatis: 
Salutem et Apostolicam benedictionem. Sicut manifestum 
est, cniuentis soli Domino dedicari abdicatis rerum tem- 
poralium appetitum; propter quod venditis omnibus et 
pänperibua erogatis nullas omnino possessiones habere 
proponitis, illius vestigia per omnia inhaerentes qui pro 
noÜs f actus est pauper, via, veritas atqne vita; nee ab 
hujusmodi proposito vos rerum terret inopia nam laeva 
Sponsi coelestii est sub capito vestro ad sustenlandum 


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144 AppwJlx II 

infirma corporis vettri quae legi mentü ordinal» charilat« 
ttravistia. Denique qui pascit aves coeli et lilia vestit agri 
vobis non deerit ad victum pariter et vestitum donec >eip- 
sum vobis tranciens in aeternititc miniitret cum acilicet ejus 
dextra vos felictui amplexabitur in suae plenitudine visionis. 
Sicnt igitur luppKcastit altissimae piupertatis propositum 
veslruRi favore apostolico robaramus auctoritate vc^is 
praesenlium tndulgentei ut recipere possessionei a nullo 
compelli poisitis. NulÜ erso omntno hominum liceat hanc 
paginam nostrae conceisionis infrinsere vel ei ausn tem- 
erario contraire. .Si quis autem hoc attentare praeaump- 
serit indignationein omnipotenCis Dei et beatorum Petri 
et Pauli Apostolorum ejus ae noverit incursurum. Datum 
Penisii XV Kalendas Octobris Ponüficatus nostri aono 

117. The questoTS were lay brotberi, whoie duty it was 
to collect bread, ofl and other alms, according to the nceds 
of the Siitcrs. A few Friari Minor, calied "Zealots öf tbe 
Poor Ladies," uauallj inhabtted a small hojptcc faard bjr the 
monuteriei of the Qarei, a father. to attead to their 
Spiritual needs and one or two lay brothen to proride for 
their material necessities, as in the present instance. (See 
Appendix, chap. XII of Rule.) This custom still prevails 
in some ntonasteries I have risited, like 5. Lucia at Foligno, 
SS. Trinitd at Gubbio, whcre tbe nun* are now, as in tbc 
past, under tbe Jurisdiction of the Friars Minor. 

118L An ititeresttnc Instrument, executed by S. Gare, 8 
June, 1338, hai preserred for tu tbe names of the fiftr-one 
Sisters forming the Community at S. Damiano in that year. 
It ii given by Wadding. See above, not« xl 

lig. The grcster Lent was that from Ash Wedneiday to 
Easter; that of St Martin's extended, as a rule, from it 
November to Oiristmas. 

laa. In this connexion the fotlowins inseription, fotind 
in tfae choir at S. Damiano, is not without interett: 
Non vos iti Votum, non elamor std amor, 
Non cordula ttd cor, ptallü m aun Dtü 



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Nt>ta 145 

lai. The devutation wron^t by tbe imperial troopt io 
Ihe Fapail domioioni, uij fspeciallj among ttie Guelph 
citiet of Umbria, b s nutter of hütoir- Tbcte lo-caKed 
Saracent, of wbom the arrny wai in part compoted, were 
dcKcndants of the Saraceni who at one time dominated 
Sicilr and Calabria. Thcr inhabitcd certain dliet in the 
Terra di Lavoro, bettowed npon tbem bj Frederick II, 
wbicb are «tili designated ss Lucerio and Nocera dei Mori 
or dei PaganL 

12a. Remaiiu of a rongh lixteenlb-ccntuir freico de- 
pictins thii erent majr ttill be leen round a imall window 
at the weit end of S. Damiano, now blockcd ap. Tra- 
dition aiierta that the troopi of Frederick II wcre forctng 
an entrancc into the monaitery bj thi> window when Cläre 
appeared there bolding ■ pyx containing the filcssed Sacra- 
ment. It !■ with reference to tbis tradition that the Saint 
ii uEuatlj depicted in art with thii emblem. See Salter, 
Franeiscan Ltgends in Ilalian Art (London, Dent; New 
York, Dutton, 1905), pp 190-91. 

laj. According to Criitofani (Slorie di Asnsi, cit., pp. 
T06-107), tbii cvent, ai weil as the one recordcd in the pre- 
ceding chapter, occurredin the year 1244; others rcfer them 
both back to 1334. Crittofani'i account ii based upon a 
fourteenth -Century manuicnpt in the communal librarj' at 
Aaiiii, with marginal notei in the writing of Papini, wbich 
I have been ible to consult (No. 341, Cronica tru über 
nttmorabiliufn divertarum hittoriar., fol. 117 C) In virtue 
of an ancient Statute the magistrates of Assisi, the chap- 
ter of S. Rufino, with the clergy, confratemities, and 
dtiiens were wont to auemble annually on zz June at 
the Churcb of S. Chiara and to proceed thence in pro- 
cession to S. Damiano, there to assiit at a solemn Mass 
of thanksgiving for the deliverance of the city throiigh tlie 
intercesston of St, Cläre. 

134. Wadding, op. cit an. ad 1253, n. XXIII (t. IIl, p. 
308) and the editors of the Anatecia Franciscana (t III 
(1^), p. 177) deduce that Agnes was bom in 1197-98- 



146 Appendix II 

She was, therefore. about fifleen years old at tbe tim« here 

125. This wat an 2 April, 1212, Qare's fljght having 
laken place, as we have seen, on 19 March. 

12& Benedict XIV permttted the Francbcan Order to 
celebraie the feast of St. Agnes of Assisi, and it ii kept 
on 16 November, For a sketch of her life, see "Vita 
Sororis Agnelis" in AnaUct. Francit., L III, pp. 173-16% 
and Calholie EMcyeloftdia, VoL I, p. 313. 

137. /. /,, to the monastery. 

128. The lext of two of these lecters has come down to 
ü». The first appears to have been written about 1219 (see 
Wadding, op, cit., ad an. 1221, t. II, p. 16, n. xx, and 
AnaUct. Francis., t III, pp. 183 //.), and the second soon 
afler Gregory's accession to the Papacy in 1227- (See 
Wadding, op. dt, ad an. 1251, t. III, p. 23g, n. xvii, and 
Sbaralea. B«ll.. t I, p. 37.) 

12g. The mystery of the Holy Eucharist held a prepon- 
derating place in the life of Qare. Like St. Francis, she 
had nothtng more at heart than all that concemed the 
cultus of tbe Blessed Sacrament. And 39 we see Francis 
sweeping out poor cburches, questing sacred vessels for 
them and pcoviding them with altar-breads of his own 
make, so we find Gare, in spite of her infirmities, furnish- 
ing them with allar-linens woven by herseif. 

13a According to the Rule of St. Cläre apptoved jiwt 
before her death, the Sisters communicated only seven 
times a year. (See p. 104.) This, of course, is the mini- 
fflum, and it may well be that St Cläre communicated 
oftener. But thirteenth-century practice in religioui cont- 
munitiet in regard to Holy Communion was very different 
from ours. See Dalgain», Tk« Holy Commumon (Dublin, 
DnBf. 1861), pp. 223 //. 

131. Ai a matter of fact, the Church of St Franceico 
is distant about two Idlometers, as the crow fliei, from 
S. Damiano, and although one might perhaps be able to hear 
at S. Damiano the clear rieh tones of the belli at S. Fran- 





cesco, put up by Eliai in 1239, it wonld be impoisiblc, 
humanly speaking, for the chant of the Friart and the 
sound of the orean in tbe lower church there to fcach so 
far. The incident here recorded is generali/ referrcd to 
Clare's last Christmas on eartb, that of 1353. 

133. A charminK ampitfied Version of this incident is 
found in the Actus B. Franeisci et Sociorum ejut, ed. Sab- 
atier (Paris, 1902), chap. 43, and in the Fiorelli di S. Fran- 
cMco. c. 35. 

133. /. e-, the fourth and fifth of tbe Canonical Honrs, 
corresponding respecüvely to the sixth hour of the da/ 
(noon) and the ninth (3 P. U.}. 

134. A prayer in honor of the Fire Wounds given by 
certain pious writers on St. Oare ai being tbe one com- 
posed by her, must be looked on with suspicioa 

135. Thii is a reference to tbe Oflke of the Passion 
compiled by St. Francis. This office was translaled into 
English for the first lime by ihe prcsent writer, according 
to the text of the Assisi MS. 338, from which the prescnl 
Life of St. Cläre is hkewise translaled. See The iVritirtgt 
of Sl. Francis (Philadelphia: The Dolphin Press, 1906), 
pp. 154-176. For the Latin text, see Opiueula S. P. Fron- 
cisci Assuiensit (Quaracchi, 19014). pp. 136-148. 

136. See p. 32. 

137. The Latin text, Hortulana stiam teeuta planttilam 
... in horlo coneluso . . . Domino lerviebal, contains 
a new play upon the name of Clare's mother, as well as 
an allusion to Cant. 4: 12. Wadding, op. cit ad an. 1353, 
n. 25 (L in, p. 309), notes that Oriolana followed her 
three daughters, Cläre, Agnes and Beatrice, into the Order, 
but says the date of her death is unknown. Jacobilli, how- 
ever, asserts (.Vitc dei Sdnti t Beaii delf 'Umbria, t. I 
[Foligno, 1647], II) that she died 3 January, 1253, and she 
is commemorated on that day by Arthur {Martyrologium 
FranciseoKttm, Paris, 163S), who gives her the title of 
"Bleised." There is a recent biography of this devout 
woman by P. Ciro Ortolani — La Beata Orlolona, Madn di 



148 AppendU 11 

S. Chiara (Rom«, tip. Sallustiana, 1904, pp. XVI-aa4), 
but it is not in the main hütoricsl. 

13a Tradition telli ai that she was a niece of St. Cläre;. 

139. Thii last miracle is written on thc margin ot the 
Auisian codex J3S (from which thc present trenslation is 
made) br anotber band from that which wrote the rest of 
Ihc M5. Thi> other band, which is apparently that of s 
contemporatT, has also corrected thc errort of the copyist 
here and there, and majr have collated the Assisi MS. 
with an earlier one, perhaps, even wilh tbe original suto- 
graph biography. 

14% Magna trat t» moiuuttrio tororum muüiludo lat^- 
guentium — an allusion to Jo. 5:3 

I4i> I- t; tbe infirroary, located, then as now, ahove thc 
rcfcctory at S. Damiano. 

142. There i> an allusion here to the tree of life of tbe 
Apocaljrpte (23:2), which was a favorite figure with the 
early Franciscan mystics, as witneis the Ltgtium Vitat 
of St Bonaventure and the Arbor Vilat of Ubertino da 

143. It wouid seem from a lelter of Jacques de Vitry, 
written in 1216, that tbe Gares at the outset lived bj manual 
labor, and would not accept alms. (See Boehmer, Anal. 
gur Gesch. dtt Fr. von Attisi, 1904, p. 94.) After definitive 
enclosure was imposed upon thcm about 1219 their necds 
were Stipplied by the Friara. See above, p. 27. 

144. More probably Andria, in tbe environs of Perugia, 
as Papini and Lipsin have noted on thc margin of the 
Assisian MS. We leam from Celano's "First Life" of 
St Francii that Philip was one of the elevcn original com- 

-paniom of the Saint and a most eloquent preacher. (See 
' I CeL, I 25, p. a&) He U callel Philip thc Long in GUss- 
bet'ger's Chronicle ^Amalecta Froneit., t 11 (1887), p. 16), 
and also in the Actus B. Franeitei, ed. Sabatier dt, c I, n. 
^ and in the Ckronictt of tlu XXIV GtntraU (in Atuä. 
Fran., t III, p. a6a). In the Bull Ad Grandt Salutis of 
Gregory IX, itsued 31 January, 1233, he it described as 



NoUt 149 

Vliitor of the Poor Ladies; and Jordan in bli Chronicte 
(ed. Boehmer, Parii, 1908, pp. ia-13), call» bim the Zcalot 
of the Poor Ladiet, and tclb u> that durinE Francti't 
absence in the Orient, Philip obuined from Cardinal Ug- 
oltno a Pontifical privilcge in favor of the Poor Ladies 
which the Saint afterward had revoked. According to 
Wadding, op. cit ad an. 1355, n. 8 (t IV, p. m), Philip 
died at Perugia in tbat year and was buried in the church 
of the Gares therc. Otheri, however, laj that he was 
buried at AttitL 

145. In thit connexion it ia interesting to rccall that 
Brother Giles, the companion of St Frandi, once visited 
S. Damiano white an Engtith Friar, a matter in tfaeologjr, 
thought to have beeo Alexander of Haies, was preaching 
there. "Stop, master," he exdaimed, "for I want to preach." 
Tbc preacber yielded, and, after Giles bad ßnished speak- 
ing, was suffered to resume bis discoarse "to tbc edificaiion 
of St Cläre." (See Anal. Francis., t III, p. 81, and The 
GoSdtH Sayinss of Bl. Brothtr Gilti, Philadelphia, 1907, 
p. «vüi.) 

146. By the Bull Qua Elongali of 28 September, 1330, 
Gregory IX had intetpreted the wordi of tbe Rule of the 
Friari Minor, Chap. XI, "Quod fratres non ingrediantur 
monasteria monacharum," as extending alio to the mon- 
aiteries of tbe Cläres. The text of thii Bull ii given by 
Sbaralea, op. cit, t I, pp. 68-70; »ee, also, Sptc. Ptrf., ed. 
Sabatier, p. 330 //. 

147. /. t., to their ProvinciaL 

148. Innocent IV was at Lyons from December, 1344, to 
April of 1351 He returned to Italy during the latter year, 
and after a ihon sojoum in Gcnoa took up bis leat at 

14p. Cardloal Rainaldo or Reginaldo Conti, then Pro- 
tector of tbc Order, afterward Pope ander the title of 
Alexander IV. 
■ 150, See p. 9& 



150 ApptnJ'ix II 

151. This interview appears to have taken place on 8 
September, 1352. On 16 September he obtained for her 
tbe desired confinnation (lee Appendix, p. 96). 

152. They came 37 April — i May, 1253, for the consecra- 
tion of the Baiilica of San Francesco. 

153. Innocent IV appeart to have visited Sl Qare twicc: 
first a few day* after bis arrival in Assisi and agaio abont 
Iwo days before her death. 

154- Early in 1353 Agnei had been cMcd to Assiii bj 
St. Gare f rotn Rorence, whither she had been sent by St. 
Francii about 1219 to be Abbess of the Monastery of 
Monticello. (See Wadding, op. cit ad an. laxi, n. xix. t 
II, p. IS) 

IS5> It seems very likeljr that the pastages read to the 
dyiRK Saint were idcntical with those which the selfume 
Friars twenty-seven yeart before had read to St. Francii 
"in commendationem animac," vic, John 13 : 14. (See 
Montgomery C^rmichael, "The Gospel read to St Francis 
'in transitu,'" in Dublin Revitvi, April, 1903, p. 335.) 

156. "Would to God that 1 had a «hole forest of such 
Junipers," St Francis once exclaimed in regard to this holy 
brother whose pious pranks are recorded with delightfol 
tiaiviti in the second appendix of the Fioretli, He died 
4 January, 1254. at Ära Coeli in Rome, where bis tomb 
may still be seen. 

157. Mark of lisbon, who died in 1591, has handcd down 
to ut what purporti to be the text of this benediciion 
(CronUkt itgli Ordini iiulituH dtl P. S. Franetseo, Ital- 
ian trana., Venicc, 15S2, t. I, l viü, c 34}, and it has been 
reproduced in the Seraph. LegitSat. Texttu Originaltt, dt, 
p. aSi; bot iti authentidty ia not above queitioo. Tbe 
renions of this Blessing foimd among the maauscripti of 
the refonn of St Colettc contain some additions, of which 
that Saint is probably hcrsetf the aitthor. 

158. Angelo and Leo were two of the fantous Three 
Companioni" of St Francis, the third being Qare's own 
couiin, Rufino (see above, n. 81), and together they had 



Note» 151 

sung foi Francis his own "Caniicle of the Creatures" 
when the Saint laj dying. They are both burted at S. Fran- 
cesco, near their master. Angelo Tancrcdi of Rieti "was 
the first knight" to entcr ihe Order, and was "adorned 
with alt courtesy." (Spce. Perf., ed. Sabatter, c VI, pp. 
137 and 167.) Leo, the Gccretar;, confessor and nurse of 
Francis, was a life-long friend of St. Cläre and one of 
the purest and most sj-mpathetic ßgurej in the Franciscan 
Legend. He died on 15 November, 1271, (See Spee. Pnf., 
CiL, pp. Ixxii //.) There is a good sketch of both these 
Friars wtth bibliography in Miss MacdoncH'a Sont of 
Francis (London, Dent, 1902). 

159. The Saint died toward dawn on 11 Angust, 1353, 
as the late Bishop of Assisi, Mgr. Priori, has been at 
psins to show in an artide, "Del Giomo et dell* Ora della 
Mortc di 5- Chiara di Assisi," published in the Eco di San 
Franceieo. Sorrento, 1894, t xii, pp. 781-788. 

i6a /. e., Syndic or Major. 

161. The rivalry existing belween different towns to ob- 
tain possessioQ of the bodies of hoty persons was a curious 
characteristic of medieval liaüan pieiy. The saucy Peru- 
gians, as we know, would fain have carried off St. Francis 
by force when he was in his last Ülness, so that he might 
die fli thetr city; they placed a guard abotit the convent 
outside Perugia, where Blessed Giles was dying, to make 
sure of his relics, and later on stole the corpse of Blessed 
Conrad of Offida away from Bastia. As late as 24 August, 
1809, the remains of Blessed Antony of Stronconio were 
Stolen by the Stronconians from S. Damiano, where he had 
died in 1461. 

163. Cardinal Rainaldo, who afterwards, as Alexander 
in, canonized Qare. 

163. The chapel of S. Giorgio stood within the city 
and with its adjoining hospital belongcd to the Canons of 
S Rufino. It was here that Francis's preaching had first 
touched Clare's young hearL His body reposed at S. Gior- 
gio from 5 October, 1226, antil its translalion to the Basilica 



152 Apptnda II 

of S. Francesco on 2$ Mijr, 1228: not, however, in the 
church itself, but in a chapel atUch«d to it, which, aftcr 
the construction of the Monattery of S. Cbtara, remained 
enclosed within the interior cloister, and whtch msT he 
Seen in the photograph facing pagc 73, (For a descrip- 
tion ol thii chapel, ace MisctÜanta Franeeseana, VoL I, 
faic. I (3 cd. FoUgno, igoi), pp. 45t 4'^^} It *ai here, too, 
Ihat Clare'i owa remaiiu wer« placed provistonally on the 
ixj following her death, petiding the erection in her honor 
of the splendid Chnrch of S. Chiara. In connexion with 
thii church a new inonasterT was constmcted for the nnni 
of S. Damiano, so that they might not be separated from 
Ihe bodjr of loch a mother. The ancient Chnrch of S. 
Giorgio was encloied within thia new monasterjr, and 
served ai tfae nuna' choir up to 1900, when it wa> opened 
to the public. On j October, 1360, the remaJns of St Cläre 
were transtated with great pomp and buried deep down 
under the high altar. On 33 September, 1850, after much 
icarch had becn made, the skeleton of St. Oare was discov- 
eredi it ts now enshrined in the crypt beneath the Church 
of S. Chiara. 

164. Fawit interjectU ditbut ts the expreasion used br 
our author. (See above, p. XXXIII.) In point of fact, 
niaety-seven dajs intervened betwcen the death of CUre 
and that of Agnes. The latter died on 16 November, 1353. 
See Wadding, op. dt ad an. 1353, n. xxiü, t III, p. 306. 
Aiuü. Frantü., L III, p. 177. Cristofani, Sloria A' S. 
DamiaHO. ed. iS&a, pL 97. 

165. A town some thirtjr-six Idlometres from Perugia, 
now Icttown as Umbertide. 

16G. The Fapal Curia, which had retumcd from France 
with a iuite of courtiers and of pages, moitlj French, stajred 
at Assisi from 13 August to 4 October, 1353, and the pres- 
ent miracle must no donbt be referred to that period. 

167. An ancient Roman town ten miles from Assisi, on 
the road to Foligno. 

108. Our codex reads Vami, but this is plainlj the slip 





of a scribe — • ytfj common thing in mediEval USS. — as « 
colUtion of Um pauifc with other eirlj codicet goei 
to thow. Nami, tbe well-knowti city in qucstion, ii some 
twcnty-five kilometcra from Spoleto. The Ponte di Au- 
giuto, ihe bridge liere referred to, once carried thc Via 
Flaminia toward Rom«, and is now one of thc most beauti- . 
ful njin» of it» kind in the world. See Hutton. Tht Citiet 
ef Umbria (New York, Dutton, 1506), p. 73 ff- 

169. In the Latin there ii a constant p\xy upon Gare'* 
name: Clart, per elaram viJil luminii ciariiaUm Deum 
lavdando elarificat, etc. In thii comicxion it ts inleresting , 
to Icarn from an eminent BotUndtst that in France St. 
Cläre ii invoked bx the pcople who tuffer from their ejea, 
becatue ahe etubles them to see cltarly. See Delehaye, 
The Legendi of the SainU, cit, p. 48. 

17a In one of the petty feudi then so common betwcea 
the rival citiet of the Umbrian plaia 

171. The practice of offering donariei of wax at the 
tombs of the SainU, representing the whole body or aomc 
part of it, was not uncommon in the Middle Agei, 

173. A town under the hüls opposite Assiii. 

173. A town in the Umbrian pbin sm kilomctreB soulh- 
west of Assbi. 

174. /. e., in Italian scrofola. 

175. A town in Ihe piain near Assisi. 

176. The girl appears to have been combing the hair of 
the woman, who did not, iherefore, see the wolf. 

177. The words within brackets are written on the margin 
of our codex. 

17a By the Bull Ghriotus Deut, dated 18 Oetober, 1353, 
scarcely two months aftcr Clare's death, Innocent IV di- 
rected the Bishop of Spoleto, Bartholomew Accorombani, 
to initilute an official inquiry as to "the life, conversion, 
conversation and miracles of St. Cläre," with a view to the 
procesi of her canoniiation. The text of this Bull is given 
by Sbaralca, t I, p. C84, n. 504. The original is still extant 
in the archive of S. Chiara at Assisi and is described in 



154 AppmJU U 

detail in my Inotntarium S. Clara«, ilready cited, p. 41^ 
The "Intenogatoria" which ■ccompanied the Bull and 
according to whJch the inquirr was to be conducted, arc 
misüng, but most probabler they were similar to those med 
in ihe canontzation ot St Eliiabeth of Hungaiy, and which 
wer« rccently found and edited by Dr. Albert Huyikens in 
hi« Quetltn tlnditn tur Gesckkhtt der hl. ElUabclh (Mar- 
burg, igo8). pp. 113 ff. 

179. As II August, the day on which St Oare died, was 
the feait of S. Rufino, the Patron o( Assisi, her feast was 
auigned to the day foUowing. 

i8a The canonization secms to have laken place, as our 
anthor states, on 11 August, 1355, the second anniversary 
of Clare's death. The original Bult ot her canonitation 
hat not come down to us, and copies of it bearing dif- 
ferent dates are to be found. That given by Sbaralea (op. 
dt, t II, pp. 81-S4) K dated ig Octobcr. 135s (See, also, 
Potthast, 16035.) In 'he Bull which begins Clara elaris 
praeehm there is a constant play upon the Saint's name, as 
ia Ihe present biography. 

161. See on this question Lcmmens, "Die Anfinge des 
Ciarissenordens" m Römische Quartaltchrift, t xvi (igo3), 
PP- 93-"24- 

183. On this point we have the aulhority not only of St. 
Qare herseif, who has inserted a fragment of this formula 
vilae in the sixth chapter of her Rule (see p. iio), but also 
of Gregory IX in the Bull Angelis gaudiutn of 11 May, 
I33& (See Sbaralea, op. cit, t I, p. 245.) 

183. The Lateran Council of 1315 had prohibited the 
fonndation of new Orders. 

184. See Bull Sancla Romana EetUiia of p December, 
1319, in Sbaralea, op. cit, L I, p. 3. 

I^ See the Bull $ic%t mantffshtm est of t? Septem- 
ber, 1238, in Sbaralea, 09. dt, t I, p. 771. 

i86v See his Bull Cum omnis vera of 34 May, 1339, in 
Sbaralea, op. dt, t I, p. 263. 


.y Google 



187. See ihe Bull Solei annutrt of 13 Novembet, 1245, in 
Sbaralea, op. eil., L 1, p. 394. 

188. By the Bul! Solei onnuert of 9 Anpiit, lasj. See 
Sbaralea, L t, t. I. p. 671. 

18g. See WaddinK. AhmUs. ad u. lass, N. XIX. L III, 
p. 2^. 

19a See on this point Tht WrSlingt of St, Fnneis, Dol- 
phin Press, Philadelphia, ipoö, pp. 7S //. 

191. See p. XVIII. 

192. See .tircA. Francis. Hisl.. An. t (1908). *a«c. II and 
III, p. 417. I must apolopzc for referring 10 frequcntly 
to an article of tay own, but I know of nothing die deal- 
ing to preciseljr with the document in question. 

193. See hii brochure Um Autografo di Innocetuo IV t 
memorie di S. Ckiara, 3 ed., 1895. Rome. Tip. Vatic, S XV, 
pp. 79-8a 

194. Se« Hiitoirt abrfgit de fOrdrt dt Somtt CUnre 
d'Assise, t. II, Ljrons, 1906, p. I19. 

195. Published in the Seraph. Legis. Text. Orig., dt pp. 

196. The words of the Gospel here referred to are the 
passages which St. Francis selected for the guidance of hi» 
first companions (Matt. 19:21; Maik 6:&; Matt 16:24) 
and which he desired them to praciise Jn all Iheir per- 

197. On the meaning of this passage see Golubovich, 
"Ceremoniale Ord. Min. Vetusiissimum," in Areh. Francis. 
Hist.. an. III. fasc 1 (Jan., 1910), pp. 56 //. The Friars 
Minor reciled the Divine Office according to the manner 
of the Roman Curia. 

198. /. e., like the Sislcrs who cannot read. 

199. The text of this chapier has been complelely tnin- 
cated in most Laiin cditions of Ihc Rule and in the ver- 
nacular version based upon them, ihe two precious frag- 
ments of St. Francis': writing herein preserved not appear- 
ing at all. 

20a /. *., that the benefactors might be commended to 
the prayers of the Community. 




Abbess of CUm: see Rnle 
Acta SanctOTum, xlii 
Acts of Qut't Canooia- 

tion, xxix 
Agnes of Aisisi, St.: con- 
Tcrsion of, 40; joins her 
sister Cläre, 4t; her 
stniggle whh her reU- 
tives, 41; tonsnred bj 
Francis, 43; and in- 
structed by bim, 43; it 
consoied by St Cläre, 6?; 
date of her death, 74 
Agnes of Bohemia, Bl. : 
her correspondence with 
SL Gare, xxi 
Alesssjidri, Prof. Leto, 

Alessandrina of Fratta, 78 
Alexander IV, Pope— for- 
me rlj Rainaldo, Cardi- 
nal Bishop of Ostia: hb 
praises, 63; he adminis- 
ters the last Sacraments 
to Qare, 63; obtains for 
her tbe sanctlon of her 
RdIc, 64; bis share in its 
composition, 96; he 
preacbes Gare's funeral 
sennon, 73 ; canonizes 

her, 00 ; conunissions 

Thomas of Celano to 

write her Itf«, xxv 
Amata, Sister, 55 
"Andent Legend," the; xvt 
Andrea of Ferrara, Siiter, 

Angeli, S. Maria degIL 

See nnder Porxiuncola 
Angela de Panzo^ S. See 

ander Panao 
Angelo Tancredi, compan- 

ion of St Francia, ia 

present at th6 death of 

St Gare, 69 
Arcbives: at S. ChUra. 

Aisisi, xviii; at S. Ru- 

fino, Assisi, xix; at 

Spoleto, XX : at Valleglo- 

ria, Spello, 95; of Gares 

at Foligne, lafi; of Garea 

at Pemgia, laS 
Assisi, Gtjr of: tbreatened 

bj the Saracen inraders. 

36; delirered from the 

armjr of Fredcridc II, 39; 

the Papal Curia arrives 

there, 64 
Assiti, Bishcq) of, com- 

mands Gare to nioderate 

her fasting, 32 
Aversa, ViUlii, 38 



Bishop °t 


Spoleto, XX 

quoted, xli 

Bastia, XX 

Bencvenuta, Sister, 54 

Benicnotoli, Cillcnio, xx 

Beltona, 83 

BevaEna, 85 

Bitil, Fr. Mictiael, laS 

Biograpbies oE St Clar«: 
contemporarr bi<«raphy 
a her vma effigies, ix; 
4ate of it9 compotition, 
xxii; its authorship, xxii, 
xxiii; literary jtructure 
of, xxxii; its character- 
istics, xxxüi; its tng- 
mentary character, xxxv ; 
il3 historical value, x1 ; 
MSS. of this biography, 
xl; earty editions of it, 
xli; and translations, xiii; 
later biosraphies of St. 
Qare, xxxlx; their short- 
comings, xxxix 

Boltandists, quoted, xxiÜ, 
xlii, xliii 

Bona, a woman of Uonte 
Gatliano, 87 

Bonaventure, St, quoted, 

Bread, multiplication of, by 

St Oare. See Miraclei 

Breviary of St. Francis 

preserved at 5. Chiara, 
Bullary, FrancJscan, xxi 
Bulla quoted: Gregory IX, 
Sancta Romana EceUsia 
(1219), 96; Devt Pater 
(122S), 44, i/iß; Sicul 
maniftslum ett (1328). 
g6, 143; Quo elongati 
(iZ3o),6o, 149; Ad grande 
tatulit (1333), 14S; An- 
gelis Gaudium (1238), 
154; Cum amnii vera 
(1239), 96; Innocent IV: 
SoUt annvtre (1245), 
g6; SoUt annuere (1253), 
xviii, 96; Ctoriotus Dtwt 
(1253), «S3; Alexander 
IV: Clara claris frat- 
clora (1255), 91. 154 
Buon Giovanni of Perugia, 


of Heisterbach, 

Caesar of Speyer, xxiv 
Camaldolese nuns, 95 
Cannara, xxxr 
Canonization of St Gare, 

Canticles composed for the 

Qares by St Francis, xvi 
Cantide of the Sun, xii 
Cardinais of the Curia at- 

tend St Clare's funcral, 




Carmela Chenibina, Abbess 

of S. Chiara, laS 
Cassetta, Cardinal Protcc- 

tor of S. Giiara, 128 
Cavamia, P. Niccolö, xiü 
Caxton, William, xlii 
Celano, Thomas of. See 

Chaplain of Poor Oaru. 

See Rul« 
Chapter of Poor Oares. 

See Rule 
Cbapter General of Paris, 

Cbiranci, P. Leopold de, 

Chiara, S — Monastery of, 
at Assisi : Brother Leo 
placei his MSS. there, 
xvi; some of its vicissi- 
tudes, xvii ; expulsion of 
the nuns, xvii; its ar- 
chive Euarded wilh jeat- 
oiu care, xviii ; orig:inal 
BuH of Innocent IV con- 
finning Rule of St. Cläre 
found there, xviii; search 
for other early docu- 
ments, xviii; inventory 
of the Archive, xix 

Chronology : defective, in 
carly life of St Cläre, 

Gare, St. : her influence on 
St. Francis, vii; heiress 
of his tdeals, viii; her 
slruggles to uphold his 

X. 159 

teachings, vHi; calls her- 
seif the ••little flower of 
SL Francis," viü; the 
poelry of her life story, 
viü; her romantic friend- 
ship with St. Francis, 
viii; she kisses the Stig- 
mata of St Francis after 
his death, xti; difficulties 
bcsetting a documentary 
■tndy of her life, xiv; 
deartb of material on the 
subject, XV ; why so few 
details about her hare 
becn recorded, xv; not 
all the early records con- 
ceming her have been 
preserved. xv; a due to 
their disappcarance, xvii; 
Ecarch for the same, xix; 
Ihe r.\--:;:- EC-urces o£ her 
history, xxi; her cor- 
respondence with BL 
Agnes of Boliemia, Xxi; 

early Bulls relating to 
her iife, xxi; her con- 
teuiporary biography (see 
biography) ; references lo 
her in the early lives of 
St Francis, xxi ; blessing 
attribuled to her, xxvi ; 
ear liest aitempt lo give a 
presentmcnt of in writ- 
ing, XXX ; the füll signitt- 
cance of her name in the 
mind of her conlempo- 



160 /n< 

nry biograpber, xxxü ; 
bU outline of her life, 
XXXV, xxxvi ; Gare's 
parentage, 6; birtfa, 7; 
pietjr o{ her earlj' years, 
8; her nuimer of pray- 
ing, 9; her meeting with 
St. Francis, 10; she 
leavu her father*] house 
bjr night, and is dothed 
with the Franciscan habit 
at the Porztuncola, 14; 
she i> taken hy St Fran- 
cis to the Monastery of 
St Paul, is; the is mo- 
lested by her relatives, 
who endeavor to take her 
home, 16; she moves to 
5. Ancelo de Famo and 
finally to S. Damiano 
(see Damiano, $.), 17; 
her manner of life there, 
18; the fame of her vir- 
tucs becomes wtdeipread, 
19: the far-readiing ef- 
fects of her exainple, 21 ; 
she becomes abbess at S. 
Damiano, 33; her hu- 
tnility in that office, 23; 
her love of Porer^, 3$; 
she Petition* Innocent III 
for the privilege of Pov- 
•rty, 36: she rejects the 
proposal of Gregory IX 
to receive possessions, 36; 
she multiplies the bread 
in the Monastery by a 

Riirade, a8; and provides 
oil for the commvmity in 
like manner, 39; her 
practices of penance, 30: 
she moderates them at (he 
command of St. Frands, 
31, 33; light-heartedness 
of St Gare, 33; her 
practice of prayer, 33; 
she is tcmpted by the 
devil, 34; the wonders 
wrought through her 
prayers, 36; she con- 
fronts the Saracen inva- 
ders and they are put to 
flight, 36, 37; she prays 
for the deliverance of 
Assisi and it is saved, 3S, 
39; through her prayers 
her sister Agnes is con< 
verted, 40; and delivered 
from the persecution of 
their relatives, 43 (see 
also Agnes, SL) ; Greg- 
ory IX asks her prayers, 
44; Oare's devotion to 
the Blessed Sacrament, 
46; she spins altar linen 
durtng her long illness, 
46; ihe is granted a great 
consolation in her illness, 
47; her fervent devotion 
to the Passion of our 
Lord, 49; she redtes Of- 
fice of the Cross com- 
posed to' St. Francis, 50; 
and is rapt in ecstasy on 




Holy Tfaursday, 51; she 
works divers miraclei bj 
the Sign of Ih« Cro», 
53-56; her daily instnic- 
lion of Ihe Sisters, 57; 
her easer desire to tiear 
the Word of God, 59; she 
sends back the questors 
to their Frovincial, 60; 
CUre'i great charity to- 
ward the Sisters, 61 ; her 
infirmitiet and long ilt- 
ness, 63; ihe eotreaU 
Cardinal Ratoaldo to ab- 
tain a eonfinnation of the 
privilege of Poverty, 64; 
she is visited and ab- 
solved br Innocent IV, 
6s; she contoles her Sis- 
ter Agnes, 67 ; of her last 
days, 68; her patience in 
Buffering, 68; she is as- 
sisted when dying by the 
early companions of 
Francis, 69; she is con- 
Boled by the words of 
Brother Juniper, 69; sht 
passes away, 7t; the Ro- 
tKan Corü with crowds 
of people flock to her 
funeral, 73; her remains 
are dosely guarded over 
night by anned men, 73; 
Cardinal Rainald o 
preaches her funeral ser- 
mon and after Solemn 
Mass of the Dead her re- 


tnains are bome in joy- 
ons procassion to Assisi 
and deposited Provision- 
ally in the Cburch of 5. 
Giorgio, 73; her tomb is 
visited by devout multi- 
tudes, 74; >nd she is 
glorified by many mir- 
ades. 75 (see Utrades) ; 
she is enrolled in the 
Catakguc of Saint» by 
Alexander IV, 91. For 
her share ta the compo»- 
tion of the Ruie of the 
Foor Oares, see Rnle 

Gares, Foor: see ander 

Colettines, xxxix 

CoRimunion, Holy, of the 
Cläres. See under Rule 

Confession of the Gares. 
See under Rule 

Confemitties, Book of the, 

Cozza Litzi, Abbot, quoted, 
XXV, 97 

Crescentius of Jesi, Minis- 
ter Geoeral, xxiv 

Cristiana, Stster, 55 

Gross, Office of the, re- 
dted by St Gare, 49 

Cuypers, William, Bolland- 
ist, xlii 

IVAIencon, P. Edouard, 
quoted, xxvü 





Damüna, S., Church and 
Monastenr ot: mcmoriM 
of St. Cläre associated 
with, xii; St. Francis 
composes hU Canticie o( 
the Sun th«rc, xii; his 
bcxly ü brought there for 
the Cläres to venerate, 
xÜ; Thomas of Celano 
comcs there lo gatber 
material for his Life of 
St CUre, xiii; Sl aare 
takes up her abode Ihere 
and founds the Order of 
Poor Ladies, 17; it is at- 
tack cd bjr the Saracens, 
36; Gregory IX at, 
xxxvii; Innocent IV at, 
65; funeral scrricci of 
St Cläre held at, 73 ; ob- 
servance of Ihe Ruie at, 
9S. 96 

Dates : absence of in early 
life of St Cläre, xxxiii 

Dialogus Miraculonnit, 

Diet trat, xxiv 

Donovan, Fr. Stephen, xiü 

EcsUqr of St Cläre, 51, 5^ 
Eucharist, Holy, St Clare's 
devotion to, 46 

Fatoci, Mgr.. Vicar-General 
of Spoleto, XX 

Fasts of the Poor Cläres. 
See RuIe 

Florence, xxv, 96 

Formvla VU«t ^ven by St. 
Francis to St Cläre, 95 

Francesco, S. — Chnrch of, 
at Assisi, 47. 48 

Francis, St : infiuence of 
St Cläre on, vii; her 
strugsle to uphold his 
ideals, viii; her romantic 
friendship with him, viii ; 
composes the "Canticie 
of the Sun" at S. Dam- 
iano, xii; writings of his 
addressed to the Qares 
which are missing, xvi ; 
his preaching at S. Gior- 
gio which converted St. 
Cläre, xxxvi ; his meet- 
tngs with St Cläre, 10; 
he exhortä her to con- 
secrate herseif to Cod, 
II ; and becomes her 
spirituat guide, 13; he 
cuts od her hair and 
clothes her with the Fran- 
ciscan habil, 14; he takes 
her to the Monastery of 
St Paul, 15; urges her 
to become abbess at S. 
Damiano, 23; bids her 
moderate her austerities, 
31, 32; he cats off the 
hair of St Agnes, Clare's 
Sister, and instructs her 
in the way of the Lord, 


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43! tbe Office of tbe 
Gross he had composed 
h recited b7 St Qare, 
5a; he sends a Friar af- 
flicted with trtaiy to St 
Qare to be cured, 53; he 
gives to St. Gare and her 
first companioQS a short 
ruie of life, 95, iio; but 
had no sbare in tfae com- 
positioti of Ihe definitive 
Knie of St. Cläre. 97: the 
last wish hi wrote for 
Sl CUre and her Sisters, 

Franciscan anonymity, xxü 

Franciican docnments, 
search for, xx 

Fratta, town of, 78 

Frederick II, 36 

French youlh cured of 
freniy. 79 

Frondini, Antonio, xx 

Funeral of St. Cläre, 72, 73 

Giacobello of Spoleto, 80 
Giacobino, a boy of Peru- 
gia, 76 
Giacomo de Franco, 84 
Giorgio, S., ChuTch -of. at 
Assisi : St. Francis': 
preachins there, xxxv ; 
Sl Qare's body provis- 
ionally interred there, 73; 
See also note 163 

ex 163 

Goetz, Watter, qaoted. xxiU 

Golden Legend, xli, xlii. 
See also {.tgenda Aurea 

Gregory IX, Pope, formerly 
Ugolino, Cardinal Bishop 
of Ostia: his afTection for 
St Cläre, 36; Visits her 
at S. Damiano, 26; she 
resists his olTer to endow 
ber roonastery, 27; he 
writes to ask her prayers, 
44; his praises, 44; he 
forbids the Friars to go 
to her monasteries wiih- 
out his pcrmissiriQ, 60 ; he 
draws up a written Rule 
for the Cläres while Pro- 
tcclor of the Order, 95; 
confirms it afler he be- 
comes Pope, 9Ö; grants to 
St Cläre the Privilegium 
Foufcrtatis, 96 

Gubbio, 84 

Guidololto, a man of Peru- 
gia, 76 


Habit of the Cläres, loi 

Hiiloire abrtgft de rOrdre 

de Sainie Ciaire, xxxix 

Hitloria Serophica, xli 
History of St. Clarc, 
sources of the, xxi 


Ibald, Fr. Bcrnardine, xiii 



164 In 

Illnus of St Cläre, 62 
Influenee of St. Qare: on 
St Frsuicis, vii; on the 

Innocent III, Pope, grants 
St. aar« the Privilege of 
Poverty, 36 

Innocent IV, Pop«: con- 
finni the Ruie of St 
Cläre, 96; Visits tbe dying 
Saint and absolves her, 
65 ; attends her funeral, 
73; institutea an inquiry 
with a Tiew te her canon- 
ization, note 178 on psges 

Inventory of documents at 
S. Cfaiara, xix 

Inventory ef 
S. Rulino, XX 

John the Baptist, St. 75 
John of Parma, Bl., Minis- 

1er General, xxiv 
J«rdan of Giano, quoted, 

Jnniper, Brother, compan- 

ioa of St Francis, visita 

St Cläre on her death 


Ladies, Poor, foundation 
of, 17; RuIe of, see Ruie 

Legtnia Aurea, xxxiv. 
See also Golden Legend 

Leo, Brother, companion of 
St Francis: confides hia 
MSS. to the nuns at St 
Chiara, xvi; gives them 
the breviary of St Fran- 
di for safe keepiag, xix; 
is Said ttt have colUbo- 
rated in writing the Life 
of St Cläre, xxxviii; is 
present at her death, 69. 
See also note 158 on 
pagcs 150-1 

Libraries : Communal at 
Assisi, xüi; National at 
Florenc^ xxv; of the So- 
cieti di Sludi Frances- 
cani, xüi 

I^ns, sojoum of Innocent 

Magliabechtan MS. See 

Manuscripts: Assisi 338, x, 
xl; Assisi 341, not« 133; 
Magliabechiano, xxT- 

xxix; at Vallegloria, 95; 
MS. inventorjr af Fron- 
dini, XX} at S. Chiara, 
Martin, St, Lent of, 3t 
Mattiolo, a boy of Spoleto, 

Medieval chronicies, xxxi 
Middle Ages, xxxi-xxxv 
Minister General of the 
Friars Minor, 60 


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Mtrades wroueht ttarough 
the intercesaioii of St 

I. During life: multi- 
plicaiion of loaves, aS; 
granting of oil, 29 ; repul- 
tion of the Saracens, 37; 
defeat of Aversa, 38; 
Casting out of deviU, 40; 
wonders she worked by 
the Sign of the Gross, 53; 
eure of Stephen, a Friar 
afilicted with frenij, 53; 
of Mattiolo of Spolcto, 
54; of Benevenuta, a Sis- 
ter, 54; of Amata, an- 
other Sisier, 55; of Chris- 
tiana, 55 

II. After dealh: Gia- 
cobino of Perugia is de- 
livered of the demon, 76; 
Alessandrina of Fratta is 
freed from the demon, 
r8; a French youth cured 
of frenzy, 79; Valentino 
of Spello cured of epi- 
lcp>7i 79: Gtacobello of 
Spoleto receives hts sight, 
80; Büon Giovanni of 
Perugia regains the use 
of hii hand, 82; Fetriolo 
of Bettona is healed of 
his crookedncss, 83; a 
boy of San Quirico cured 
of lameness; 84; a boy of 
Gubbio cured of deform- 
ity in the feet, 84; Ple- 

•JL 165 

naria, a crippled woman 
of Bevagna, t> made 
whole, 85; a girl of Pe- 
rugia and Sister Andrea 
are cured of tnmors of 
the throat, 86, 87; a boy 
of Monte Galliano and a 
girl of Cannani are res- 
cucd from man-eating 
wolves, 87-89 

Misctllaitea Franctscatia, xx. 

Miising docnments, xx 

MonalduB, 43 

Monte Galliano, 8? 

Monticello, Uonastery of, 

MortiGcations of St Oarc, 


Ofüce, Dtvine, tts recitation 
by the Cläres. See Rule 

Officials in the Order of 
Poor Ladies. See Rule 

Öliger, Fr. Livarius, aciii 

Ortolana, Mother of St 
Qare: her picty in the 
World, 6, 7; ihe follows 
her daughter into the Or- 
der of Poor Ladies, 54; 
eures 3 boy of Perugia 
suffering from an uleer, 


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I i 

Ostia, Bishop q(. See un- 
der Alexander IV and 
Gregory IX 

Palm Sundax, incident ot, 

Panzo, S. Angelo in, Bene- 
dictine Monastery on 
Mount Subasio : St 
Oare's sojoum there, 17; 
her siater Agnes joins her 
there, 41 ; dispute as to its 
Site see note 105 

Paolo. S., Benedictine Mon- 
astery ncar Bastia: St 
Gare sheltered there 
after her receptton by St 
Francis, 15; vision of a 
nun at, 63 

Papini, Niccolö, qiioted, 

XXV. xl 

Passion of our Lord, St. 

Oare's devotion to the, 

Penance to be imposed on 

delinquent Cläres. See 

Pennacchi, Prof. Francesco, 

xüi, idii 
Pemgia, 55, 63, 64, 7^ 78, 

Petriolo of Bettona. 83 
Philip of Adria, Visitor of 

the Cläres, preaches at S. 

Damiano. 5g 

Pisa, 44 

Plenaria, a woman ol Be- 

vagna, 85 
Podesll of Assisi. 73 
Poor Cläres. See under 

Porztuncola, chapel of, near 
Assisi: SL Cläre Rees 
there by night and u 
clothed by St Francis 
with the habit of bis Or- 
der. 14. See also note 

Poverello. See Francis, St 

Poverty: St Clare's strug- 
gle to matntain St Fran- 
cis's ideal of, viii; her 
love and practice of, 35; 
she obtains the Privilege 
of Poverty from Inno- 
cent III, 26; and also 
from Gregory IX, 96 

Prayer, St. Clare's practice 
of, 33 

Praycrs of SL Cläre, «ffi- 
cacy of. 36, 38, 40. 44 

Privilegium Paufertatit or 
Privilege of Poverty: ob- 
tained by St Gare, 26. 
64, 96. See also not« 
114 and ti6 

Protector of the Poor 
Ladies. See Rule 

Quaracchi. xxiii, 98 



Questors, 37, 29 
Quirico, S., Villase, 8| 

Rainatdo, Brother, exhorts 
St Cläre in her suffer- 
ings, xxxviii, 68 

Rainaldo, Cardinal. See 
Alexander IV 

Romaa Curia attenda Sl 
Oarc's funeral, 73 

Roncalli, Coimt Fiumi, xiii 

Ruie of St Gare : its early 
history, 95; St Francis 
gives Cläre and her fint 
companions a formula 
vHa, 95; about 1219 Car- 
dinal Ugolino draws up a 
written Rule for ihe 
Qares, 95; Gare obtains 
from Gregory IX the 
Privilegium Pauptrtatis, 
96; tbe RuIe of 1219 con- 
finned by Gregory IX 
(1239) and by Innocent 
rV (124s). 96; Cardinal 
Rainaldo prepares a 
definitive Rule for the 
Oares (1252} whicb is 
confirmed by Innocent IV 
(I2S3). 96; St Oare's 
share in the composition 
of this Rule, 97; St. 
Francis had no part in iti 
compilation, 97; original 
Bull containing this Rule 

s 167 

hurried to the dying 
Saint, 97; it is fonnd at 
Astisi (1893), 97i in tbis 
Rule Cläre calls herseU 
the "little flower of St 
Frands," viii ; promises 
(^dience to tbe Popes 
and the Minister Generals 
ai the Friars Minor, gg; 
■ts prescriptions as to the 
qualifications of aspirants 
lo the Order and the way 
tbcy are to be received, 
100; as to the Divine Of- 
fice, Fasting, Confession, 
and Conununion, 103, 
104; as to the elections 
and offidals, 105-107; as 
to silence, the parier, and 
the grille, loS, 109; as to 
the privation of posües- 
sions, iio; and as to St 
Francis's wishes on this 
point, III; as lo work 
and alms, 112; as to pov- 
erty in particutar and as 
to the Sisters who are 
ill, 113-115; as lo the 
penance to be imposed on 
delinquent Sisters and as 
to those servlng ontside 
the Monastery, 116, 117; 
as to tbe Visitation of ihe 
Abbess, the obedience of 
the Sisters, and as to 
vice« and virtues, I18, 
iig; ai to the Portresa 


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168 In 

and of entrr into the 
Monastery, 120, lai ; as to 
the Viiitor, the Chaplain, 
and the Cardinal Frotec- 
tor, 122, 123 

Sabatier, Faul, quoted, xl 

Saracens besiege S. Damia- 
no, 36 

Sbaralea quoted, xxi 

Script ure, Sacred, quota- 
tions fron: Deut. 24:1, 
14; IV Kings 3:1s, ;o; 
Job 4:12, 33; Job 30:18, 
8; Fs. 4S:S,2i; Ps. 67:11, 
34; Fs. 67:14. 17: P». 
83:7, 69; Frov, 3i:zo, 8; 
EccL 1:2, 73: Cant. 1:3, 
19; Cant 2:5. 22; Cant 
2:14, 17; Wb, 3:13, n; 
Isa. 4:1, 20; Isa. 9:2, 3: 
Lam. 3:20, ^; Lam. 4:12. 
i^; Matt s:i(^ Itp; 
Matt 5:15, 4; UatL 6:15, 
117; Matt 10:22, 119; 
Matt 12:33, 7; Matt 
13:41^ as: Matt 25:1, 86; 
Lake 2:7, 15, 96; Luke 
3:3S> ^: John 6:7, aS; 
John 7 :38, 33 ; John 10 :4i, 
75; John 13:3, 18; John 
13:1, 51; Rom. 7:24, 65; 
Rom. 9:1^ 29; Rom. 
13:14 9; I Cor. 9:24, 63; 
I Cor. 10:13, 39; n Cor. 

2:15, 9; H Cor. 4:7, 35; 

II Cor. 8:14, 8; II Cor. 

10:9, 62; GaL t^, 10; 

GaL 3:27, 9; Eph. 4:24, 

10; PhiL 3:8, 12; PhiL 

3:14, 63; Coloss. 3:14, 

iiy; Heb. 13:13, 13; Jas. 

4:9. -13: Apoc. 7:9, 71; 

Apoc 13:3, 148 
Sedulius, Henricus, xH 
Sermons, St Oare's eager- 

neu to hear, 59 
Silence, observance of by 

Cläres. See Rtile 
Siaters, St Qare's charity 

toward, 61; her instruc- 

tion of them, 57 
Societi Intemasionale di 

Studi Francescani, xiii 
SourcSs of the history of 

St. Cläre, xxi 
Spello. 79, 95 
Spoleto: Bishop of, see 

Barthotomew ; citjr of, xx, 

80; vaUejr of, 21, 36 
Stephen, a Friar afHicted 

with f renzr, 53 
Surlua, Ljitirentius, xli 

Tagliacozzo, xxviii 
Tennant, John A., xüi 
Testament of St CUre, xxi 
Thomas of Celano: hts life 
and writings, xxiv; se- 
lected by Alexander IV 


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to write the Ufe of St 
Cläre, xxv; earliett at- 
tribution of this worlc to 
him, xxv; its points of 
resemblance to his Uves 
of St Francis, xxvij; dr- 
cumstances of his writing 
it, xxviii; the sources of 
his information, xxix; 
his qualilications for the 
task, XXX ; his rhetorical 
excesies, xxxi; pecnliar- 
tties of his style, xL See 
also ander Biography 

Tiber, River, 78 

Tini, Mgr., Vicar- General 
of Assisi, xix-xx 

Translation of St. Oare's 
contemporary biography. 
See Biography 

Trent, Council of, xx 

Ubertino da Casale, quoted. 

Ugolino, CardinaL 
Gregory IX 

Valentino of Spello, 79 

Vallegloria, 95 

Van Ortroy, P., quoted, 

Varro, S. Giovanni di, 


'\ncar of Foor Cläres. See 

Vision of a Benedictine nun 

at Oare's deathbed. 63 
Vision of another Sister at 

Oare's deathbed, 70 
Visitor of Poor Qares. See 

Vitalis. See Aversa 
Voragine, Giacomo di, xl! 

Wadding, Luice, quoted, xx 
Wolves, devastation wroaght 
by, 87-89 

2779 051 


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